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Technological asymmetry among foreign investors and mode of entry

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  • Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska
  • Saggi, Kamal

Abstract

How does the preferred entry mode of foreign investors depend on their technological capability relative to that of their rivals? The authors develop a simple model of entry mode choice and evaluate its main testable implication using data on foreign investors in Eastern European countries and the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The model considers competition between two asymmetric foreign investors and captures the following tradeoffs: while a joint venture helps a foreign investor secure a better position in the product market compared with its rival, it also requires that profits be shared with the local partner. The model predicts that the efficient foreign investor is less likely to choose a joint venture and more likely to enter directly relative to the inefficient investor. The authors'empirical analysis supports this prediction: foreign investors with more sophisticated technologies and marketing skills (relative to other firms in their industry) tend to prefer direct entry to joint ventures. This empirical finding is robust to controlling for host country-specific effects and other commonly cited determinants of entry mode.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3196.

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Date of creation: 01 Jan 2004
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3196

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Keywords: International Terrorism&Counterterrorism; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Microfinance; Small and Medium Size Enterprises; International Terrorism&Counterterrorism; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; ICT Policy and Strategies; Microfinance;

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References

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  1. Magnus Blomstrom & Mario Zejan, 1989. "Why Do Multinational Firms Seek Out Joint Ventures?," NBER Working Papers 2987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Miller, R-R & Glen, J-D & Jaspersen, F-Z & Karmokolias, Y, 1996. "International Joint Ventures in Developing Countries. Happy Marriages?," Papers 29, World Bank - International Finance Corporation.
  3. Wilfred J. Ethier & James R. Markusen, 1991. "Multinational Firms, Technology Diffusion and Trade," NBER Working Papers 3825, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, 1989. "Ownership structures of foreign subsidiaries : Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-25, January.
  5. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
  6. Wheeler, David & Mody, Ashoka, 1992. "International investment location decisions : The case of U.S. firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 57-76, August.
  7. Elizabeth Asiedu & Hadi Salehi Esfahani, 2001. "Ownership Structure In Foreign Direct Investment Projects," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 647-662, November.
  8. Markusen, James R., 2001. "Contracts, intellectual property rights, and multinational investment in developing countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 189-204, February.
  9. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
  10. Benjamin Gomes-Casseres, 1990. "Firm Ownership Preferences and Host Government Restrictions: An Integrated Approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, March.
  11. Ramachandran, Vijaya, 1993. "Technology Transfer, Firm Ownership, and Investment in Human Capital," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 664-70, November.
  12. Ignatius J. Horstmann & James R. Markusen, 1990. "Endogenous Market Structures in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3283, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Valeria Gattai & Piergiovanna Natale, 2012. "What makes a joint venture: micro evidence from Sino-Italian contracts," Working Papers 218, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Jan 2012.
  2. Jiahua Che & Giovanni Facchini, 2009. "Cultural differences, insecure property rights and the mode of entry decision," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 465-484, March.
  3. Alireza Naghavi & Dermot Leahy, 2008. "Intellectual Property Rights and North-South Joint Ventures," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 017, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics.
  4. Alireza Naghavi & Dermot Leahy, 2006. "Intellectual Property Rights and Entry into a Foreign Market: FDI vs. Joint Ventures," Working Papers 2006.97, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  5. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2011. "Core competencies and the structure of foreign direct investment," Working Papers 11-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  6. Kaminski, Bartlomiej & Smarzynska, Beata K., 2001. "Foreign direct investment and integration into global production and distribution networks : the case of Poland," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2646, The World Bank.
  7. Surafel Girma & Yundan Gong & Holger Görg & Sandra Lancheros, 2012. "Foreign ownership structure, technology upgrading and exports: Evidence from Chinese firms," Kiel Working Papers 1793, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  8. Paul Missios & Halis Murat Yildiz & Ida Ferrara, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Choice of Environmental Policy," Working Papers 004, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
  9. Onur Koska, 2009. "A Model of Competition Between Multinational Firms," Working Papers 0911, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2009.
  10. Latzer, Hélène, 2013. "Bridging the technology gap with limited human capital resources," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 175-184.

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