Competition and Critical Mass
AbstractEmpirical literature and related legal practice using concentration as a proxy for competition measurement are prone to a fallacy of division, as concentration measures are appropriate for perfect competition and perfect collusion but not intermediate levels of competition. Extending the classic Cournot-type competition model of Cowling and Waterson (1976) and Cowling (1976) used to derive the Hirschman-Herfindahl Index (HHI) of market concentration, we propose an adaptation of this model that allows collusive rents for all, none, or some of the firms in a market. Application of our model and new critical mass measures to data for U.S. commercial banks in the period 1984-2004 confirms that concentration measures are unreliable competition metrics. Our results lead us to conclude that critical mass is a promising new market power metric for competition analyses. Policy and future research implications are briefly discussed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR) in its series Research Memorandum with number 063.
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- R. Alton Gilbert & Adam M. Zaretsky, 2003. "Banking antitrust: are the assumptions still valid?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 29-52.
- Caballero, Ricardo J. & Engel, Eduardo M. R. A., 1993.
"Microeconomic rigidities and aggregate price dynamics,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 697-711, May.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M.R.A. Engel, 1992. "Microeconomic Rigidities and Aggregate Price Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 4162, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Boone, Jan, 2004.
"A New Way to Measure Competition,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4330, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jaap W. B. Bos & James W. Kolari, 2005.
"Large Bank Efficiency in Europe and the United States: Are There Economic Motivations for Geographic Expansion in Financial Services?,"
The Journal of Business,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(4), pages 1555-1592, July.
- J.W.B. Bos & J.W. Kolari, 2003. "Large Bank Efficiency in Europe and the United States: Are There Economic Motivations for Geographic Expansion in Financial Services?," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 61, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
- Howitt, Peter & Griffith, Rachel & Aghion, Philippe & Blundell, Richard & Bloom, Nick, 2005.
"Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship,"
4481507, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Philippe Aghion & Nick Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2005. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(2), pages 701-728, May.
- Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted U Relationship," NBER Working Papers 9269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship," IFS Working Papers W02/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1987.
"The price-concentration relationship in banking,"
Research Papers in Banking and Financial Economics
100, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Evans, William N & Kessides, Ioannis N, 1993. "Localized Market Power in the U.S. Airline Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(1), pages 66-75, February.
- Gilbert, R Alton, 1984. "Bank Market Structure and Competition: A Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 617-44, November.
- Cowling, Keith & Waterson, Michael, 1976. "Price-Cost Margins and Market Structure," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 43(171), pages 267-74, August.
- Bos, Jaap W.B. & Kolari, James W. & van Lamoen, Ryan C.R., 2013.
"Competition and innovation: Evidence from financial services,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1590-1601.
- J.W.B. Bos & J. Kolari & R. van Lamoen, 2009. "Competition and innovation: evidence from financial services," Working Papers 09-16, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Cowling, Keith, 1976. "On the theoretical specification of industrial structure-performance relationships," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-14, June.
- Aghion, Philippe, et al, 2001. "Competition, Imitation and Growth with Step-by-Step Innovation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(3), pages 467-92, July.
- Goppelsroeder, M. & Schinkel, M.P. & Tuinstra, J., 2006.
"Quantifying the Scope for Efficiency Defense in Merger Control: The Werden-Froeb-Index,"
CeNDEF Working Papers
06-09, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
- Marie Goppelsroeder & Maarten Pieter Schinkel & Jan Tuinstra, 2006. "Quantifying the Scope for Efficiency Defense in Merger Control: The Werden-Froeb-Index," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 06-074/1, Tinbergen Institute.
- Berger, Allen N, et al, 2004. "Bank Concentration and Competition: An Evolution in the Making," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 433-51, June.
- Berger, Allen N, 1995. "The Profit-Structure Relationship in Banking--Tests of Market-Power and Efficient-Structure Hypotheses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 404-31, May.
- Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "The structure-performance relationship for European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 745-771, May.
- Allen N. Berger & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine & Joseph G. Haubrich, 2004. "Introduction: Bank concentration and competition: an evolution in the making," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 433-451.
- Adelman, M A, 1969. "Comment on the "H" Concentration Measure as a Numbers-Equivalent," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(1), pages 99-101, February.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Charles Bollen).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.