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Visible Minority Neighbourhood Enclaves and Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants


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  • Hou, Feng
  • Picot, Garnett
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    Using Census data from 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996, this study examined the association between living in a visible minority enclave and immigrants' labour market outcomes in Canada's three largest cities. The results showed that the number of such enclaves, defined as census tracts with at least 30% of the population from a single visible minority group (Chinese, South Asian or Black), increased from 6 in 1981 to 142 in 1996, mostly in Toronto and Vancouver. The association between exposure to own-group neighbours and employment was at times negative, but generally not significant. Exposure to own-group neighbours and working in a segregated occupation was positively, but not significantly, associated. Little association existed between exposure and employment earnings. However, there were some important group differences. The associations between exposure to own-group neighbours and labour market outcomes were usually very weak among Chinese immigrants, but often negative and strong among Black immigrants.

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    Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch in its series Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series with number 2003204e.

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    Date of creation: 09 Jul 2003
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    Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:2003204e

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    Keywords: Employment and unemployment; Ethnic diversity and immigration; Immigrants and non-permanent residents; Integration of newcomers; Labour; Labour market and income; Visible minorities; Wages; salaries and other earnings;


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    1. Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2002. "Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrant Adjustment?," IZA Discussion Papers 449, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Borjas, George J, 1995. "Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 365-90, June.
    3. Oreopoulos, Philip, 2002. "Do Neighbourhoods Influence Long-term Labour Market Success? A Comparison of Adults Who Grew up in Different Public Housing Projects," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2002185e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
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    Cited by:
    1. Deepti Goel & Kevin Lang, 2010. "Social Ties and the Job Search of Recent Immigrants," Working Papers id:2932, eSocialSciences.
    2. Haan, Michael, 2005. "Are Immigrants Buying to Get In?: The Role of Ethnic Clustering on the Homeownership Propensities of 12 Toronto Immigrant Groups, 1996-2001," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2005252e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    3. Hou, Feng, 2004. "Recent Immigration and the Formation of Visible Minority Neighbourhoods in Canada's Large Cities," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2004221e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    4. Goel, Deepti & Lang, Kevin, 2009. "The Role of Social Ties in the Job Search of Recent Immigrants," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2009-12, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 02 Feb 2009.
    5. Hou, Feng, 2008. "Immigrants Working with Co-ethnics: Who Are They and How Do They Fare Economically?," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2008310e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.


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