Does the Glass Ceiling Exist?: A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility
AbstractWe compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the income dynamics -- the movement of women and men through the distribution of income over time. We find that there is considerable evidence in favor of a glass ceiling both in Germany and the United States with men having approximately a 30% premium in their upward income mobility compared to women in the upper income classes. We also find significant, but smaller, differences at middle and low income levels for both countries.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Rutgers University, Department of Economics in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 200301.
Date of creation: 25 Mar 2003
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glass ceiling; mobility; Markov chain; income distribution dynamics; gender discrimination;
Other versions of this item:
- Gang, Ira N. & Landon-Lane, John & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2003. "Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 713, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- D3 - Microeconomics - - Distribution
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-LAM-2003-07-21 (Central & South America)
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- Gang, Ira N. & Landon-Lane, John & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2002.
"Gender Differences in German Upward Income Mobility,"
IZA Discussion Papers
580, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun & John Landon-Lane, 2002. "Gender Differences in German Upward Income Mobility," Departmental Working Papers 200221, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
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