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Productivity Growth, Technical Progress and Efficiency Change in African Agriculture

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  • Nkamleu, Guy Blaise

Abstract

The paper examines the economic performance of a large number of African countries using an international comparable data set and the latest technique for analysis. The paper focuses on growth in total factor productivity and its decomposition into technical change and efficiency change components. The analysis is undertaken using the data envelopment analysis (DEA). The present study uses data of 16 countries over the period 1970–2001. It was found that, globally, during that period, total factor productivity has experienced a positive evolution in sampled countries. This good performance of the agricultural sector was due to good progress in technical efficiency rather than technical progress. The region suffered a regression in productivity in the 1970s, and made some progress during the 1980s and 1990s. The study also highlights the fact that technical change has been the main constraint of achievement of high levels of total factor productivity during the reference period in sub-Saharan Africa. Contrariwise, in Maghreb countries, technological change has been the main driving force of productivity growth. Finally, the results indicate that institutional factors as well as agro-ecological factors are important determinants of agricultural productivity growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 11380.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:11380

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Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Efficiency; Productivity; Agriculture; Subsaharan Africa;

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References

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  1. Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad & Thomson, Kenneth J., 2001. "Input and output technical efficiencies of wheat production in Kerman, Iran," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 24(3), March.
  2. Taylor, Timothy G. & Scott Shonkwiler, J., 1986. "Alternative stochastic specifications of the frontier production function in the analysis of agricultural credit programs and technical efficiency," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 149-160, April.
  3. Battese, George E., 1992. "Frontier production functions and technical efficiency: a survey of empirical applications in agricultural economics," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 7(3-4), October.
  4. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise, 2004. "L’echec de la croissance de la productivite agricole en afrique francophone
    [Failure of agricultural productivity growth in African French speaking countries]
    ," MPRA Paper 15104, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Fulginiti, Lilyan E. & Perrin, Richard K., 1998. "Agricultural productivity in developing countries," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, Blackwell, vol. 19(1-2), pages 45-51, September.
  6. Bagi, Faqir Singh, 1982. "Relationship Between Farm Size And Technical Efficiency In West Tennessee Agriculture," Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 14(02), December.
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  8. Lilyan E. Fulginiti & Richard K. Perrin, 2005. "LDC Agriculture: Non-parametric Malmquist productivity indexes," Development and Comp Systems 0502025, EconWPA.
  9. Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad & Thomson, Kenneth J., 2001. "Input and output technical efficiencies of wheat production in Kerman, Iran," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 307-313, March.
  10. Lau, Lawrence J & Yotopoulos, Pan A, 1971. "A Test for Relative Efficiency and Application to Indian Agriculture," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 94-109, March.
  11. Nkamleu, G. B. & Adesina, A. A., 2000. "Determinants of chemical input use in peri-urban lowland systems: bivariate probit analysis in Cameroon," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 111-121, February.
  12. Kalirajan, K.P. & Shand, R.T., 2001. "Technology and farm performance: paths of productive efficiencies over time," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 24(3), March.
  13. Simeon Ehui & John Pender, 2005. "Resource degradation, low agricultural productivity, and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: pathways out of the spiral," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 32(s1), pages 225-242, 01.
  14. Battese, George E., 1992. "Frontier production functions and technical efficiency: a survey of empirical applications in agricultural economics," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, Blackwell, vol. 7(3-4), pages 185-208, October.
  15. Kopp, Raymond J. & Diewert, W. Erwin, 1982. "The decomposition of frontier cost function deviations into measures of technical and allocative efficiency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 319-331, August.
  16. Wilson, Paul & Hadley, David & Asby, Carol, 2001. "The influence of management characteristics on the technical efficiency of wheat farmers in eastern England," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 24(3), March.
  17. Wilson, Paul & Hadley, David & Asby, Carol, 2001. "The influence of management characteristics on the technical efficiency of wheat farmers in eastern England," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 329-338, March.
  18. K.P. Kalirajan & M.B. Obwona & S. Zhao, 1996. "A Decomposition of Total Factor Productivity Growth: The Case of Chinese Agricultural Growth before and after Reforms," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 331-338.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Alene, Arega D., 2009. "Productivity growth and the effects of R&D in African agriculture," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China, International Association of Agricultural Economists 51436, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Keho, Yaya & Gockowski, Jim & David, Soniia, 2007. "Investing in agrochemicals in the cocoa sector of Côte d’Ivoire: hypotheses, evidence and policy implications," MPRA Paper 14656, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Alene, Arega D. & Manyong, V.M. & Tollens, Eric F. & Abele, Steffen, 2007. "Targeting agricultural research based on potential impacts on poverty reduction: Strategic program priorities by agro-ecological zone in Nigeria," Food Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 394-412, June.
  4. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Nyemeck, Joachim & Sanogo, Diakalia, 2006. "Metafrontier Analysis of Technology Gap and Productivity Difference in African Agriculture," MPRA Paper 15103, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Guy Nkamleu & Joachim Nyemeck & Jim Gockowsk, 2010. "Working Paper 104 - Technology Gap and Efficiency in Cocoa Production in West and Central Africa: Implications for Cocoa Sector Development," Working Paper Series, African Development Bank 241, African Development Bank.
  6. Gelan, Ayele & Muriithi, Beatrice Wambui, 2010. "Measuring and Explaining Technical Efficiency of Dairy Farms: A Case Study of Smallholder Farms in East Africa," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE);Agricultural Economics Association of South Afri 96187, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE);Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA).
  7. Fleming, Euan M. & Fleming, Pauline, 2007. "Evidence on trends in the single factoral terms of trade in African agricultural commodity production," 81st Annual Conference, April 2-4, 2007, Reading University, Agricultural Economics Society 7980, Agricultural Economics Society.
  8. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise, 2006. "On measuring indebtedness of African countries: A stochastic frontier debt production function," MPRA Paper 14661, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Sylla, Kalilou & Zonon, Abdoulaye, 2008. "What accounts for growth in African agriculture," MPRA Paper 11102, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2008.
  10. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise, 2008. "Investigating the Sources of Agricultural Growth in Africa: Factor Accumulation, Total Factor Productivity, and Technology Absorption," 2007 Second International Conference, August 20-22, 2007, Accra, Ghana, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) 52108, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
  11. Candemir, Mehmet & Deliktas, Ertugrul, 2007. "Production Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth in Turkish State Agricultural Enterprises," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 8(2), June.
  12. Alene, Arega D. & Coulibaly, Ousmane, 2009. "The impact of agricultural research on productivity and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 198-209, April.
  13. Binam, Joachim Nyemeck & Tonye, Jean & wandji, Njankoua & Nyambi, Gwendoline & Akoa, Mireille, 2004. "Factors affecting the technical efficiency among smallholder farmers in the slash and burn agriculture zone of Cameroon," Food Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 531-545, October.
  14. Onyenweaku, C.E & Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi N. & Opara, T.C., 2010. "Productivity Growth in Food Crop Production in Imo State, Nigeria," MPRA Paper 29538, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 02 May 2010.
  15. Aizhen Li & Boris E. Bravo-Ureta & David K. Okello & Carl M. Deom & Naveen Puppala, 2013. "Groundnut Production and Climatic Variability: Evidence from Uganda," Working Papers, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy 17, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  16. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise, 2007. "Religious faith and agricultural growth: exploring some correlations in Africa," MPRA Paper 11131, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2007.
  17. Justin Bem & Pierre Joubert Nguetse Tegoum & Tatiana Morel Samo Tcheeko & Jacksone Essoh, 2013. "Efficience de production du secteur informel non-agricole et réduction de la pauvreté au Cameroun," Working Papers PMMA, PEP-PMMA 2013-06, PEP-PMMA.

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