Geographic And Institutional Determinants Of Real Income:A Spatio-Temporal Simultaneous Equation Approach
AbstractThis paper tests a series of prominent hypotheses regarding the determinants of per-capita income using a novel spatial econometric approach to control for spillovers among neighboring countries and for spatially correlated omitted variables. We use simultaneous equations to identify alternative channels through which country characteristics might affect income, and then test the robustness of those effects. We find support for both “institutionalist” and “geographic” determinants of income. A time-varying index of institutional quality has a strong independent effect on current income, but there is also a persistent effect of geographic factors such as seasonal frost, malaria transmission, and coastal location, which influence income through their links to agricultural output, health, urbanization and trade. The data cover 95 countries across the world from 1960 through 2002, which we use to construct a pooled dataset of nine 5-year averages centered on 1960, 1965, and so on through 2000. We use both limited and full information estimators, partly based on a generalized moments (GM) estimator for spatial autoregressive coefficients, allowing for spatial error correlation, correlation across equations, and the presence of spatially lagged dependent variables
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Purdue University, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics in its series Working Papers with number 06-15.
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
economic growth; geography; institutions; spatial econometrics; simultaneous equations;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
- C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Longitudinal Data; Spatial Time Series
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
- O13 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
- R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-01-14 (All new papers)
- NEP-GEO-2007-01-14 (Economic Geography)
- NEP-URE-2007-01-14 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cem Ertur & Wilfried Koch, 2007.
"Growth, technological interdependence and spatial externalities: theory and evidence,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(6), pages 1033-1062.
- Cem Ertur & Wilfried Koch, 2005. "Growth, Technological Interdependence and Spatial Externalities - Theory and Evidence," ERSA conference papers ersa05p651, European Regional Science Association.
- ERTUR, Cem & KOCH, Wilfried, 2005. "Growth, Technological Interdependence and Spatial Externalities: Theory and Evidence," LEG - Document de travail - Economie 2005-03, LEG, Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne.
- Masters, William A. & McMillan, Margaret S., 2001.
"Climate And Scale In Economic Growth,"
11845, Agecon Search.
- William A. Masters & Margaret S. McMillan, 2000. "Climate and Scale In Economic Growth," CID Working Papers 48, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- William A Masters and Margaret S McMillan, 2000. "Climate and Scale in Economic Growth," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-13, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Margaret S. McMillan & William A. Masters, 2000. "Climate and scale in economic growth," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-13, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Xavier X. Sala-i-Martin, 1997.
"I Just Ran Four Million Regressions,"
NBER Working Papers
6252, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:chb:bcchwp:03 is not listed on IDEAS
- Cho, Dongchul, 1996. "An Alternative Interpretation of Conditional Convergence Results," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 669-81, November.
- Caselli, Francesco & Esquivel, Gerardo & Lefort, Fernando, 1996.
" Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 363-89, September.
- Erich Gundlach, 2004. "The Primacy of Institutions Reconsidered: The Effects of Malaria Prevalence in the Empirics of Development," Kiel Working Papers 1210, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Maria Abreu & Henri L.F. de Groot & Raymond J.G.M. Florax, 2004. "Space and Growth," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-129/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Anselin, Luc & Bera, Anil K. & Florax, Raymond & Yoon, Mann J., 1996. "Simple diagnostic tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 77-104, February.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs, 2001. "Tropical Underdevelopment," NBER Working Papers 8119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2000.
"International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications,"
CID Working Papers
42, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2001. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 541-63, July.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2000. "International Data on Educational Attainment Updates and Implications," NBER Working Papers 7911, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian & Francesco Trebbi, 2002.
"Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development,"
NBER Working Papers
9305, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian & Francesco Trebbi, 2004. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 131-165, 06.
- Rodrik, Dani & Subramanian, Arvind & Trebbi, Francesco, 2002. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," CEPR Discussion Papers 3643, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bernard Fingleton & Enrique López-Bazo, 2006. "Empirical growth models with spatial effects," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(2), pages 177-198, 06.
- Kathleen P. Bell & Nancy E. Bockstael, 2000. "Applying the Generalized-Moments Estimation Approach to Spatial Problems Involving Microlevel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 72-82, February.
- Jonathan Temple, 1999. "The New Growth Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 112-156, March.
- Matsuyama, Kiminori, 1992.
"Agricultural productivity, comparative advantage, and economic growth,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 317-334, December.
- Kiminori Matsuyama, 1990. "Agricultural Productivity, Comparative Advantage, and Economic Growth," Discussion Papers 934, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Kiminori Matsuyama, 1991. "Agricultural Productivity, Comparative Advantage and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3606, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Matsuyama, K., 1992. "Agricultural Productivity, Comparative Advantage, and Economic Growth," Working Papers e-92-3, Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
- Stephen Dobson & Carlyn Ramlogan & Eric Strobl, 2006. "Why Do Rates Of Β-Convergence Differ? A Meta-Regression Analysis," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 53(2), pages 153-173, 05.
- Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1999. "A Generalized Moments Estimator for the Autoregressive Parameter in a Spatial Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 509-33, May.
- Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
- Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2004. "Estimation of simultaneous systems of spatially interrelated cross sectional equations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 118(1-2), pages 27-50.
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999.
"Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker Than Others?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116, February.
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?," NBER Working Papers 6564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Maria Abreu Henri L. F. de Groot & Raymond J. G. M. Florax, 2005. "A Meta-Analysis of β-Convergence: the Legendary 2%," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 389-420, 07.
- Godfrey,L. G., 1991. "Misspecification Tests in Econometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521424592, October.
- Conley, Timothy G & Ligon, Ethan, 2002. " Economic Distance and Cross-Country Spillovers," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 157-87, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Debby Weber).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.