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Policies for Inclusive Urbanisation in China

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  • Vincent Koen
  • Richard Herd
  • Xiao Wang
  • Thomas Chalaux

Abstract

Urbanisation in China has long been held back by various restrictions on land and internal migration but has taken off since the 1990s, as these impediments started to be gradually relaxed. People have moved in large numbers to richer cities, where productivity is higher and has increased further thanks to agglomeration effects. In the process, the rural-urban income differential has narrowed. Urbanisation also entails costs, however, notably in the form of congestion, all the more so as public transport provision has not kept up. Demand for living space is set to continue to increase as living standards improve, putting pressure on land prices. This can be offset by relaxing the very stringent restrictions on the use of agricultural land for building. For migrants to better integrate in the cities where they work, their access and that of their families to education, health and other social services must continue to improve, in particular via further changes to the registration system, coupled with more market-based rules on land ownership and use. Comment favoriser une urbanisation plus inclusive en Chine Alors que l’urbanisation était depuis longtemps freinée en Chine par diverses restrictions appliquées au marché foncier et aux migrations internes, elle s’intensifie depuis que ces obstacles ont commencé à être progressivement levés dans les années 90. Les villes plus riches, caractérisées par une productivité élevée et en constante progression du fait des économies d’échelle générées par l’urbanisation, enregistrent un afflux massif de migrants. Parallèlement, l’écart de revenus entre zones rurales et urbaines s’est resserré. Néanmoins, l’urbanisation a aussi un coût, notamment illustré par les problèmes de congestion, aggravés par le développement insuffisant de l’offre de transports publics. La demande de surface habitable devrait rester orientée à la hausse sous l’effet de l’amélioration du niveau de vie, ce qui exercera une pression sur les prix des terrains. Cette pression peut être atténuée en assouplissant les restrictions très sévères appliquées à l’usage des terres agricoles à des fins de construction. Pour veiller à une meilleure intégration des migrants dans les villes où ils travaillent, il faut continuer à améliorer leur accès et celui de leurs familles à l’éducation, aux soins de santé et aux autres types de services sociaux, notamment en poursuivant la réforme du système d’enregistrement et en adoptant une réglementation plus axée sur le marché en ce qui concerne la propriété et l’utilisation des terres.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Economics Department Working Papers with number 1090.

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Date of creation: 10 Oct 2013
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Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1090-en

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Keywords: housing; migration; agriculture; China; scale economies; hukou; urbanisation; cities; congestion; public transport; pollution; agglomeration effects; land; social services; urban-rural divide; économies d'échelle; transport public; clivage urbain-rural; effets d’agglomération; pollution; congestion; villes; urbanisation; hukou; Chine; migration; agriculture; services sociaux; logement;

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