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Household incomes in New Zealand: The impact of the market, taxes and government spending, 1987/88–1997/98

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  • Ron Crawford
  • Grant Johnston

    ()
    (New Zealand Treasury
    Ministry of Economic Development)

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    Abstract

    How well have New Zealand households fared over a decade of extensive economic and social changes? This study compares household incomes in 1997/98 with household incomes in 1987/88, using the concept of "final income". Final income is a measure of the income accruing to households after adjusting for payments to, and benefits from, central government, whether these benefits are in cash or in kind. In particular, receipt of government health and education services is counted as adding to a household’s income, and payment of consumption taxes is counted as taking away from a household’s income. In all income deciles, the real final incomes of households were, on average, at least the same in 1997/98 as they were in 1987/88, and in most cases had increased. Government intervention, through taxes, cash benefits and social services, has maintained the incomes of less well-off households over a period of upheaval in New Zealand.

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    File URL: http://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/research-policy/wp/2004/04-20/twp04-20.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by New Zealand Treasury in its series Treasury Working Paper Series with number 04/20.

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    Length: 66 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2004
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:nzt:nztwps:04/20

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    Postal: New Zealand Treasury, PO Box 3724, Wellington, New Zealand
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    Web page: http://www.treasury.govt.nz
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    Related research

    Keywords: final income; income distribution; redistribution; fiscal incidence; income inequality; New Zealand;

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    References

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    1. O'Higgins, Michael & Schmaus, Guenther & Stephenson, Geoffrey, 1989. "Income Distribution and Redistribution: A Microdata Analysis for Seven Countries," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 35(2), pages 107-31, June.
    2. Des O'Dea, 2000. "The Changes in New Zealand's Income Distribution," Treasury Working Paper Series, New Zealand Treasury 00/13, New Zealand Treasury.
    3. Podder, Nripesh & Chatterjee, Srikanta, 2002. "Sharing the national cake in post reform New Zealand: income inequality trends in terms of income sources," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 1-27, October.
    4. O'Higgins, Michael & Ruggles, Patricia, 1981. "The Distribution of Public Expenditures and Taxes among Households in the United Kingdom," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 27(3), pages 298-326, September.
    5. Ruggles, Patricia & O'Higgins, Michael, 1981. "The Distribution of Public Expenditure among Households in the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 27(2), pages 137-64, June.
    6. Radner, Daniel B, 1997. "Noncash Income, Equivalence Scales, and the Measurement of Economic Well-Being," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(1), pages 71-88, March.
    7. Danziger, Sheldon & Taussig, Michael K, 1979. "The Income Unit and the Anatomy of Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 25(4), pages 365-75, December.
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    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. NZ inequality statistics: Some of the research
      by Matt Nolan in The Invisible Hand in Economics on 2013-11-25 19:00:32

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