Household incomes in New Zealand: The impact of the market, taxes and government spending, 1987/88–1997/98
AbstractHow well have New Zealand households fared over a decade of extensive economic and social changes? This study compares household incomes in 1997/98 with household incomes in 1987/88, using the concept of "final income". Final income is a measure of the income accruing to households after adjusting for payments to, and benefits from, central government, whether these benefits are in cash or in kind. In particular, receipt of government health and education services is counted as adding to a household’s income, and payment of consumption taxes is counted as taking away from a household’s income. In all income deciles, the real final incomes of households were, on average, at least the same in 1997/98 as they were in 1987/88, and in most cases had increased. Government intervention, through taxes, cash benefits and social services, has maintained the incomes of less well-off households over a period of upheaval in New Zealand.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by New Zealand Treasury in its series Treasury Working Paper Series with number 04/20.
Length: 66 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2004
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: New Zealand Treasury, PO Box 3724, Wellington, New Zealand
Phone: +64-4-472 2733
Fax: +64-4-473 0982
Web page: http://www.treasury.govt.nz
More information through EDIRC
final income; income distribution; redistribution; fiscal incidence; income inequality; New Zealand;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
- D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
- H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
- H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
- I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
- J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-10-18 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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- Podder, Nripesh & Chatterjee, Srikanta, 2002. "Sharing the national cake in post reform New Zealand: income inequality trends in terms of income sources," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 1-27, October.
- Ruggles, Patricia & O'Higgins, Michael, 1981. "The Distribution of Public Expenditure among Households in the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 27(2), pages 137-64, June.
- Des O'Dea, 2000. "The Changes in New Zealand's Income Distribution," Treasury Working Paper Series 00/13, New Zealand Treasury.
- O'Higgins, Michael & Schmaus, Guenther & Stephenson, Geoffrey, 1989. "Income Distribution and Redistribution: A Microdata Analysis for Seven Countries," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 35(2), pages 107-31, June.
- Radner, Daniel B, 1997. "Noncash Income, Equivalence Scales, and the Measurement of Economic Well-Being," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(1), pages 71-88, March.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- NZ inequality statistics: Some of the research
by Matt Nolan in The Invisible Hand in Economics on 2013-11-25 19:00:32
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