Abstract: Illegal Migration, Wages, and Remittances: Semi-Parametric Estimation of Illegality Effects
AbstractWe consider the issue of illegal migration from Mexico to the US, and examine whether the lack of legal status causally impacts on outcomes, specifically wages and remitting behavior. These outcomes are of particular interest given the extent of legal and illegal migration, and the resulting financial flows. We formalize this question and highlight the principal empirical problem using a potential outcome framework with endogenous selection. The selection bias is captured by a control function, which is estimated non-parametrically. The framework for remitting is extended to allow for endogenous regressors (e.g. wages). We propose a new reparametrisation of the control function, which is linear in case of a normal error structure, and test linearity. Using Mexican Migration project data, we find considerable and robust illegality effects on wages, the penalty being about 12% in the 1980s and 22% in the 1990s. For the latter period, the selection bias is not created by a normal error structure; wrongly imposing normality overestimates the illegality effect on wages by 50%, while wrongly ignoring selection leads to a 50% underestimate. In contrast to these wage penalties, legal status appears to have mixed effects on remitting behavior.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London in its series Norface Discussion Paper Series with number 2012037.
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Drayton House, 30 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AX
Phone: +44 (0)20 7679 5888
Fax: +44 (0)20 7916 2775
Web page: http://www.cream-migration.org/
More information through EDIRC
illegal migration; illegality effects; counterfactuals; selection; control functions; non-parametric estimation; intermediate outcomes; Mexican Migration Project;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
- J30 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - General
- J40 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-12-10 (All new papers)
- NEP-IUE-2012-12-10 (Informal & Underground Economics)
- NEP-LAB-2012-12-10 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-MIG-2012-12-10 (Economics of Human Migration)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kaivan Munshi, 2003. "Networks In The Modern Economy: Mexican Migrants In The U.S. Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(2), pages 549-599, May.
- Ruppert,David & Wand,M. P. & Carroll,R. J., 2003. "Semiparametric Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521785167, Fall.
- Peter Hall & J. D. Opsomer, 2005. "Theory for penalised spline regression," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 92(1), pages 105-118, March.
- David Card, 2004.
"Is the New Immigration Really So Bad?,"
CReAM Discussion Paper Series
0402, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frédéric, 2005.
"The Economics of Migrants’ Remittances,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1531, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
- Heckman, James & Navarro-Lozano, Salvador, 2003.
"Using matching, instrumental variables and control functions to estimate economic choice models,"
Working Paper Series
2003:4, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
- James Heckman & Salvador Navarro-Lozano, 2004. "Using Matching, Instrumental Variables, and Control Functions to Estimate Economic Choice Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 30-57, February.
- James J. Heckman & Salvador Navarro-Lozano, 2003. "Using Matching, Instrumental Variables and Control Functions to Estimate Economic Choice Models," NBER Working Papers 9497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heckman, James J. & Navarro, Salvador, 2003. "Using Matching, Instrumental Variables and Control Functions to Estimate Economic Choice Models," IZA Discussion Papers 768, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gordon H. Hanson, 2006.
"Illegal Migration from Mexico to the United States,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 44(4), pages 869-924, December.
- Gordon H. Hanson, 2006. "Illegal Migration from Mexico to the United States," NBER Working Papers 12141, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pia M. Orrenius & Madeline Zavodny, 2001.
"Self-selection among undocumented immigrants from Mexico,"
2001-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Orrenius, Pia M. & Zavodny, Madeline, 2005. "Self-selection among undocumented immigrants from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 215-240, October.
- Pia Orrenius & Madeline Zavodny, 2000. "Self-selection among undocumented immigrants from Mexico," Working Papers 0005, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Manuela Angelucci, 2012.
"US Border Enforcement and the Net Flow of Mexican Illegal Migration,"
Economic Development and Cultural Change,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(2), pages 311 - 357.
- Angelucci, Manuela, 2005. "U.S. Border Enforcement and the Net Flow of Mexican Illegal Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 1642, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, 1999. "Undocumented workers in the labor market: An analysis of the earnings of legal and illegal Mexican immigrants in the United States," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 91-116.
- Ruppert,David & Wand,M. P. & Carroll,R. J., 2003. "Semiparametric Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521780506, Fall.
- Sherrie A. Kossoudji & Deborah A. Cobb-Clark, 2002.
"Coming out of the Shadows: Learning about Legal Status and Wages from the Legalized Population,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 598-628, July.
- Kossoudji, S.A. & Cobb-Clark, D.A., 1996. "Coming Out of the Shadows: Learning About Legal Status and Wages from the Legalized Population," CEPR Discussion Papers 347, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Norface Migration Administrator) or (Thomas Cornelissen).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.