The Exchange Theory of Teenage Smoking and the Counterproductiveness of Moderate Regulation
AbstractAbout three-quarters of secondary schools are reluctant to vigorously enforce smoking bans due to various social pressures; ten percent of these schools do not have bans at all. Empirically, school-based smoking regulations appear, at best, ineffective at reducing teenage smoking and, more likely, may actually increase participation. Only schools which vigorously enforce bans have a lower smoking participation. In sum, teenage smoking participation appears to be non-monotonic in the level of enforcement. This paper develops an exchange model that explains this non-monotonic pattern. Smoking bans provide an exchange opportunity to less popular students. Less popular students who begin smoking validate the risk-taking behavior of existing teenage smokers who, in exchange, provide friendship to the newcomers. The enforcement itself becomes the glue which holds the group together. Teenage smoking bans, unless vigorously enforced, increase teenage smoking participation. An increase in self-esteem and other non-smoking related qualities, however, undermines the trading channel, which can help combat teenage smoking. Numerous pieces of empirical evidence, culled from the empirical social psychology literature, are consistent with all of the key predictions of the model.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8262.
Date of creation: Apr 2001
Date of revision:
Note: CH PE
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory
- L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2001-05-02 (All new papers)
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Soetevent, Adriaan R. & Kooreman, Peter, 2004.
"A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior,"
CCSO Working Papers
200401, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
- Peter Kooreman & Adriaan R. Soetevent, 2007. "A discrete-choice model with social interactions: with an application to high school teen behavior," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(3), pages 599-624.
- Kooreman, P. & Soetevent, A., 2007. "A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-284131, Tilburg University.
- Brett Katzman & Sara Markowitz & Kerry Anne McGeary, 2007. "An empirical investigation of the social market for cigarettes," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(10), pages 1025-1039.
- Peter Kooreman, 2007.
"Time, money, peers, and parents; some data and theories on teenage behavior,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 9-33, February.
- Kooreman, Peter, 2003. "Time, Money, Peers, and Parents: Some Data and Theories on Teenage Behavior," IZA Discussion Papers 931, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.