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Dealing with the Trilemma: Optimal Capital Controls with Fixed Exchange Rates

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  • Emmanuel Farhi
  • Ivan Werning

Abstract

We lay down a standard macroeconomic model of a small open economy with a fixed exchange rate and study optimal capital controls (defined as maximizing the utility of a representative household). We provide sharp analytical and numerical characterizations for a variety of shocks. We find that capital controls are employed to respond to some shocks but not others. They are particularly effective to address risk-premium shocks that affect the interest rate differential foreign investors require in a particular country. We also discuss how the solution depends on the degree of nominal rigidity and the openness of the economy. We show that capital controls may be optimal even if the exchange rate is not fixed in response to risk premium shocks or if wages, in addition to prices, are sticky. Finally, we compare the single country’s optimum to a coordinated world solution. Our results show a limited need for coordination. However, the uncoordinated solution features the same capital controls as the coordinated solution.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 18199.

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Date of creation: Jun 2012
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18199

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  1. Arnaud Costinot & Guido Lorenzoni & Iv�n Werning, 2014. "A Theory of Capital Controls as Dynamic Terms-of-Trade Manipulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 122(1), pages 77 - 128.
  2. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1998. "Capital Flows and Capital-Market Crises: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 35-54, November.
  3. Martin, Alberto & Taddei, Filippo, 2010. "International Capital Flows and Credit Market Imperfections: A Tale of Two Frictions," CEPR Discussion Papers 8131, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Neumeyer, Pablo Andrés & Perri, Fabrizio, 2004. "Business Cycles in Emerging Economies: The Role of Interest Rates," CEPR Discussion Papers 4482, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Jordi Gal� & Tommaso Monacelli, 2005. "Monetary Policy and Exchange Rate Volatility in a Small Open Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(3), pages 707-734.
  6. Obstfeld, Maurice & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Exchange Rate Dynamics Redux," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(3), pages 624-60, June.
  7. Clarida, Richard & Gali, Jordi & Gertler, Mark, 2002. "A simple framework for international monetary policy analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(5), pages 879-904, July.
  8. Obstfeld, Maurice & Rogoff, Kenneth S., 1995. "Exchange Rate Dynamics Redux," Scholarly Articles 12491026, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  9. Stanley W. Black, 1972. "International money markets and flexible exchange rates," Staff Studies 70, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Jonathan David Ostry & Atish R. Ghosh & Karl Friedrich Habermeier & Marcos Chamon & Mahvash Saeed Qureshi & Dennis B. S. Reinhardt, 2010. "Capital Inflows," IMF Staff Position Notes 2010/04, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Anton Korinek, 2011. "The New Economics of Prudential Capital Controls: A Research Agenda," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 59(3), pages 523-561, August.
  12. Ricardo Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2000. "International and Domestic Collateral Constraints in a Model of Emerging Market Crises," NBER Working Papers 7971, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Yan Carriere-Swallow & Pablo Garcia-Silva, 2013. "Capital Account Policies in Chile Macro-financial considerations along the path to liberalization," IMF Working Papers 13/107, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Michael W. Klein & Jay C. Shambaugh, 2013. "Rounding the Corners of the Policy Trilemma: Sources of Monetary Policy Autonomy," NBER Working Papers 19461, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Michael B. Devereux & James Yetman, 2013. "Capital Controls, Global Liquidity Traps and the International Policy Trilemma," NBER Working Papers 19091, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Javier Bianchi, 2012. "Comment on "Capital Account Policies and the Real Exchange Rate"," NBER Chapters, in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2012, pages 43-48 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Anton Korinek & Alp Simsek, 2014. "Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage," NBER Working Papers 19970, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Jeanne, Olivier, 2013. "Macroprudential policies in a global perspective," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov, pages 1-38.
  7. Andrés Fernández & Alessandro Rebucci & Martín Uribe, 2013. "Are Capital Controls Prudential? An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 19671, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Timothy J. Kehoe & Kim J. Ruhl & Joseph B. Steinberg, 2013. "What will happen when foreigners stop lending to the United States?," Economic Policy Paper 13-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  9. Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Benjamin Carton & Ludovic Gauvin, 2011. "Rebalancing Growth in China: An International Perspective," Working Papers 2011-08, CEPII research center.
  10. Chun Chang & Zheng Liu & Mark M. Spiegel, 2013. "Capital controls and optimal Chinese monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2012-13, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  11. Javier Bianchi & Enrique G. Mendoza, 2013. "Optimal Time-Consistent Macroprudential Policy," NBER Working Papers 19704, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Zheng Liu & Mark M. Spiegel, 2013. "Monetary policy regimes and capital account restrictions in a small open economy," Working Paper Series 2013-33, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  13. D. Filiz Unsal, 2013. "Capital Flows and Financial Stability: Monetary Policy and Macroprudential Responses," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 233-285, March.

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