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Foreign Born Scientists: Mobility Patterns for Sixteen Countries

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  • Chiara Franzoni
  • Giuseppe Scellato
  • Paula Stephan

Abstract

We report results from the first systematic study of the mobility of scientists engaged in research in a large number of countries. Data were collected from 17,182 respondents using a web-based survey of corresponding authors in 16 countries in four fields during 2011. We find considerable variation across countries, both in terms of immigration and emigration patterns. Switzerland has the largest percent of immigrant scientists working in country (56.7); Canada, and Australia trail by nine or more percent; the U.S. and Sweden by approximately eighteen percent. India has the lowest (0.8), followed closely by Italy and Japan. The most likely reason to come to a country for postdoctoral study or work is professional. Our survey methodology also allows us to study emigration patterns of individuals who were living in one of the 16 countries at age 18. Again, considerable variation exists by country. India heads the list with three in eight of those living in country when they were 18 out of country in 2011. The country with the lowest diaspora is Japan. Return rates also vary by country, with emigrants from Spain being most likely to return and those from India being least like to return. Regardless of country, the most likely reason respondents report for returning to one’s home country is family or personal.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 18067.

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Date of creation: May 2012
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Publication status: published as FRANZONI, C., SCELLATO, G., STEPHAN, P. (2012) “Foreign-born scientists: mobility patterns for 16 countries” Nature Biotechnology, 30 (12) , pp. 1250-1253
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18067

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  1. Carolin Haeussler, 2010. "Information-Sharing in Academia and the Industry: A Comparative Study," Working Paper Series of the German Council for Social and Economic Data 154, German Council for Social and Economic Data (RatSWD).
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Cited by:
  1. Franzoni, Chiara & Scellato, Giuseppe & Stephan, Paula, 2014. "The mover’s advantage: The superior performance of migrant scientists," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 89-93.
  2. Giuseppe Scellato & Chiara Franzoni & Paula Stephan, 2012. "Mobile Scientists and International Networks," NBER Working Papers 18613, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Marisa Hidalgo Hidalgo & Guadalupe Valera Blanes, 2013. "University merging process," Working Papers. Serie AD 2013-01, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  4. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni & Gianluca Tarasconi, 2014. "Inventor Data for Research on Migration and Innovation: A Survey and a Pilot," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 17, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
  5. Conchi, Sonia & Michels, Carolin, 2014. "Scientific mobility: An analysis of Germany, Austria, France and Great Britain," Discussion Papers "Innovation Systems and Policy Analysis" 41, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI).
  6. Chiara Franzoni & Giuseppe Scellato & Paula Stephan, 2012. "The Mover's Advantage: Scientific Performance of Mobile Academics," NBER Working Papers 18577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Protte, Benjamin, 2012. "How does Economic Integration Change Personal Income Taxation? Evidence from a new Index of Potential Labor Mobility," Working Papers 12-20, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
  8. Paula Stephan & Chiara Franzoni & Giuseppe Scellato, 2013. "Choice of Country by the Foreign Born for PhD and Postdoctoral Study: A Sixteen-Country Perspective," NBER Working Papers 18809, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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