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Foreign Demand for Domestic Currency and the Optimal Rate of Inflation

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  • Stephanie Schmitt-Grohé
  • Martín Uribe

Abstract

More than half of U.S. currency circulates abroad. As a result, much of the seignorage income of the United States is generated outside of its borders. In this paper we characterize the Ramsey-optimal rate of inflation in an economy with a foreign demand for its currency. In the absence of such demand, the model implies that the Friedman rule—deflation at the real rate of interest—maximizes the utility of the representative domestic consumer. We show analytically that once a foreign demand for domestic currency is taken into account, the Friedman rule ceases to be Ramsey optimal. Calibrated versions of the model that match the range of empirical estimates of the size of foreign demand for U.S. currency deliver Ramsey optimal rates of inflation between 2 and 10 percent per annum. The domestically benevolent government finds it optimal to impose an inflation tax as a way to extract resources from the rest of the world in the form of seignorage revenue.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15494.

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Date of creation: Nov 2009
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Publication status: published as Foreign Demand for Domestic Currency and the Optimal Rate of Inflation (with Martin Uribe), Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking 44, September 2012, 1307-1324.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15494

Note: EFG IFM ME
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  1. Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe & Martin Uribe, 2001. "Optimal Fiscal and Monetary Policy under Imperfect Competition," Departmental Working Papers 200101, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
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Cited by:
  1. Calza, Alessandro & Zaghini, Andrea, 2011. "Welfare costs of inflation and the circulation of US currency abroad," Working Paper Series 1326, European Central Bank.
  2. Schmitt-Grohé, Stephanie & Uribe, Martín, 2010. "The Optimal Rate of Inflation," CEPR Discussion Papers 7864, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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