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La féminisation de l'urbanisation de la pauvreté à Madagascar

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  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Fondée sur les deux enquêtes prioritaires de Madagascar de 2001 et 2005, l’étude examine l’hypothèse d’une féminisation de l’urbanisation de la pauvreté, et les relations qui prévalent avec le marché du travail. Premièrement, dans un contexte où la part de la pauvreté urbaine a augmenté plus rapidement que la population urbaine au cours de la période 2001-2005, un premier test de la féminisation de la pauvreté, admettant l’invariance de l’inégalité intra-ménages, et consistant à comparer la variation des écarts de pauvreté selon le sexe dans le temps, suggère que, dans les grands centres urbains, les ménages féminins seraient devenus relativement plus touchés par la pauvreté, puisque la variation des écarts de pauvreté [femmes-hommes] est positive, et s’établit à +7,2 points de pourcentage. La prise en compte des autres mesures de la pauvreté ou des individus confirme le poids croissant des femmes dans la pauvreté urbaine. Deuxièmement, un autre test de la féminisation de la pauvreté, fondé sur des estimations d’un modèle spatial auto-régressif mixte, indique une valeur positive et significative du coefficient d’urbanisation régionale, ce qui implique que, toutes choses égales par ailleurs, l’accentuation de l’urbanisation régionale accroît la variation des écarts de pauvreté [femmes-hommes]. Ainsi, pour les chefs de ménages, lorsque le taux d’urbanisation régionale augmente de 1 pour cent, l’écart du ratio de pauvreté régional croît de 0,81 points de pourcentage. Troisièmement, l’incidence régionale de la féminisation de la pauvreté semble être inversement reliée aux taux de croissance relatifs féminins de l’offre de travail per capita, du temps de travail par personne employée et de la productivité du travail, et positivement corrélée au taux de croissance relatif par tête de l’emploi féminin. Dans ce contexte, le déclin de la qualité des emplois, affectant plus que proportionnellement les femmes, la croissance plus rapide du chômage urbain féminin, et les disparités croissantes selon le sexe du taux de sous-occupation globale, prenant en compte à la fois les chômeurs et les employés salariés, renforcent l’opportunité d’une attention accrue aux politiques du marché du travail en milieu urbain, notamment afin de promouvoir l’emploi productif des femmes. Based on the Madagascar priority surveys of 2001 and 2005, the study examines the hypothesis of a feminization of the urbanization of poverty, and the relations witch prevail with the labour market. Firstly, in a context where the share of urban poverty increased more quickly than the urban population during the period 2001-2005, a first test of the feminization of poverty, admitting the invariance of the intra-households inequality, and consisting in comparing the changes in poverty gap by gender in time, suggests that, in the great urban centres, the female households would have become more touched relatively by poverty, since the change in poverty gap [women-men] is positive, and is established at +7,2 points of percentage. Taking into account other measures of poverty or individuals confirms the growing importance of women in urban poverty. Secondly, another test of the feminization of poverty, based on estimates of a spatial auto-regressive model, indicates a positive and significant coefficient of regional urbanization, which implies that, all things being equal, increased urbanization regional variation increases the poverty gap [women-men]. Thus, for households heads, when the regional urbanization rate increases by 1 percent, the gap in the ratio of regional poverty grows by 0.81 percentage points. Thirdly, the regional impact of the feminization of poverty seems to be inversely related to growth rates for women in the labour supply per capita, working hours per employee and labor productivity, and positively correlated to the relative growth rate per capita of female employment. In this context, the decline in the quality of jobs, affecting more than proportionately the women, the faster growth of female urban unemployment, and the growing disparities by sex in the rate of global under-occupation, taking into account both the unemployed and salaried employees, reinforce the opportunity of a greater attention to labour market policies in urban areas, particularly in order to promote productive employment for women. (Full text in french)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 147.

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Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:147

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  1. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2002. "Urbanisation, pauvreté et capacités : nouveaux défis des stratégies de développement ? Une approche spatio-temporelle au Burkina Faso," Documents de travail 71, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  2. Nanak Kakwani & Hyun H. Son, 2006. "A note on measuring unemployment," Working Papers 28, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
  3. Martin Ravallion & Shaohua Chen & Prem Sangraula, 2007. "New Evidence on the Urbanization of Global Poverty," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 33(4), pages 667-701.
  4. Kakwani, Nanak & Neri, Marcelo Côrtes & Son, Hyun H., 2010. "Linkages Between Pro-Poor Growth, Social Programs and Labor Market: The Recent Brazilian Experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 881-894, June.
  5. Medeiros, Marcelo & Costa, Joana, 2008. "Is There a Feminization of Poverty in Latin America?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 115-127, January.
  6. Ravallion, Martin, 2002. "On the urbanization of poverty," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 435-442, August.
  7. Anselin, Luc & Bera, Anil K. & Florax, Raymond & Yoon, Mann J., 1996. "Simple diagnostic tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 77-104, February.
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