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Dynamiques de pauvreté et transferts publics : le cas de la Russie

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  • Matthieu Clément

    ()
    (GED, Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

La forte dégradation des conditions de vie subie par la population russe au moment de la transition économique pose la question de l’efficacité de la politique sociale accompagnant les réformes économiques. La Russie a hérité du système de protection sociale soviétique. Celui-ci, conçu dans le cadre d’une société où l’emploi était garanti, les inégalités limitées et la pauvreté officiellement éradiquée, permettait à chaque citoyen d’atteindre un niveau de vie socialement acceptable. Inapproprié pour face aux conséquences sociales de la thérapie de choc, il a connu un certain nombre de modifications institutionnelles tout au long de la période de transition. Cet article vise, à partir des données des enquêtes ménages Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) pour la période 1994-2000, à évaluer les performances des transferts publics en termes de réduction de la pauvreté. Dans un premier temps, cette évaluation, qui s’appuie sur la comparaison du bien-être pré-intervention et du bien-être post-intervention, se veut statique, en déterminant la capacité du système à cibler les ménages pauvres et à résorber les écarts de pauvreté. Dans un second temps, nous proposons une analyse dynamique qui évalue la capacité du système à réduire la pauvreté chronique et transitoire, mais également son aptitude à tirer les ménages hors de la pauvreté et à protéger les ménages non pauvres face à un risque d’entrée dans la pauvreté. The strong deterioration of the standard of living of Russian people during economic transition raises the question of the effectiveness of social policy. Russia inherited the Soviet system of social protection. This one, introduced in a society where employment was guaranteed, inequality limited and poverty non-officially recognized, made it possible each citizen to reach a socially acceptable standard of living. Inadequate to deal with social consequences of the shock therapy, he knew several institutional modifications, throughout the transitional period. Based on the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey data over the period 1994-2000, this article aims at evaluating the performances of public transfers in terms of poverty reduction. In the first time, this evaluation, which rest on the comparison of pre-intervention and post-intervention welfare, is static, by determining the capacity of transfers to target poor households and to resorb poverty gaps. In the second time, we propose a dynamic analysis which evaluates the capacity of the system to reduce chronic and transient poverty, but also its aptitude to draw poor households out of poverty and to protect non-poor households against a risk of poverty entry. (Full text in french)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 119.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2005
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Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:119

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  1. David Coady & Margaret Grosh & John Hoddinott, 2004. "Targeting of Transfers in Developing Countries : Review of Lessons and Experience," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14902, October.
  2. Kakwani, N., 1990. "Testing For Significance Of Poverty Differences; With Application To Cote D'Ivoire," Papers 62, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  3. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  4. Hulme, David & Shepherd, Andrew, 2003. "Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 403-423, March.
  5. Mroz, Thomas A & Popkin, Barry M, 1995. "Poverty and the Economic Transition in the Russian Federation," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(1), pages 1-31, October.
  6. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Makdissi, Paul & Wodon, Quentin, 2003. "Poverty-Efficient Transfer Programs: The Role of Targeting and Allocation Rules," Cahiers de recherche 0305, CIRPEE.
  7. Kakwani, N., 1990. "Testing For Significance Of Poverty Differences ; With Application To Cote D'Ivoire," Papers 90-3, New South Wales - School of Economics.
  8. Sachs, Jeffrey D, 1996. "The Transition at Mid Decade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 128-33, May.
  9. van de Walle, Dominique, 2004. "Testing Vietnam's public safety net," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 661-679, December.
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