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Côte d'Ivoire : clientélisme, ajustement et conflit

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  • Bernard Conte

    ()
    (GED, Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Le capitalisme est un système en perpétuelle mutation, à la fois pour structurer son environnement et s'adapter à sa mouvance. L'objectif majeur est de maximiser le prélèvement du surplus à la périphérie tout en minimisant les risques attachés à la captation. Du commerce triangulaire à la mondialisation néo-libérale, le capitalisme a tenté d'imposer au Sud des modèles successifs d'exploitation censés produire de nouveaux rapports sociaux. Au cours du temps, les modes de captation de valeur ont évolué. A l'heure actuelle, pour les pays de délocalisation industrielle, le mode de captation dominant passe par le système financier international, tandis que les pays rentiers (rente agricole, pétrolière…) sont soumis à un prélèvement direct. L'imposition de ce nouveau modèle fait l'objet d'interprétations, d'adaptations et de stratégies d'instrumentalisation au Sud, traduisant l'existence de dynamiques locales de réaction. Les interactions entre les stratégies des acteurs du Nord et celles de ceux du Sud peuvent produire des résultats inattendus, tels le développement ou l'aggravation de situations conflictuelles. En partant du cas spécifique de la Côte d'Ivoire, nous mettons en lumière l'évolution des modèles importés et leur impact sur la trajectoire économique, politique et sociale de ce pays. Capitalist system is characterized by an everlasting adjustment process, to simultaneously structure its environment and adjust to its changes. Major aim is to maximize the surplus extortion from the periphery while minimizing the risks attached to gather it. From triangular trade to neoliberal globalization, capitalism tried to impose on the Southern countries successive exploitation models supposed to produce new social relations. As time went by, the collecting modes of surplus evolved. Nowadays, in the countries of industrial delocalization, the major collecting mode goes through the international financial system, while the countries producing rent (agriculture rent, oil rent…) are subjected to direct extraction. Imposition of this new model leads to interpretations, adaptations and instrumentation strategies in the South, pointing out the existence of local reaction dynamics. Interactions between the Northern actors strategies and Southern actors ones can produce unexpected results, such as development or worsening of antagonistic situations. On the basis of the specific case of Côte d'Ivoire, we put forward the evolution of the imported models and their impact on the economic, political and social trajectory of this country. (Full text in french)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 101.

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Length: 20 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:101

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  1. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2001. "Growth is good for the poor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2587, The World Bank.
  2. Aron, Janine, 2000. "Growth and Institutions: A Review of the Evidence," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 15(1), pages 99-135, February.
  3. Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine & Cogneau, Denis, 2003. "Les illusions perdues de l’économie ivoirienne et la crise politique," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10836, Paris Dauphine University.
  4. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 1998. "On Economic Causes of Civil War," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 563-73, October.
  5. Catherine ARAUJO BONJEAN & Gérard CHAMBAS, 2001. "Impact du mode d’organisation des filières agro-alimentaires sur la pauvreté : La filière cacao en Côte d’Ivoire," Working Papers 200115, CERDI.
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