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Public pressure versus lobbying – how do Environmental NGOs matter most in climate negotiations?

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  • Katharina Rietig
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    Abstract

    Advocacy nongovernmental organizations have the largest influence on the outcome of climate negotiations when they mobilize public pressure in collaboration with the media. Environmental NGOs can pursue insider strategies by joining government delegations as advisors or pursue outsider strategies as either lobbyists inside the negotiation venue or as activists. This article presents an analytical framework that can determine the influence of NGO outsider-strategies on climate change conferences based on indicators. Influence for NGOs within the conference center depends on their policy entrepreneurial strategies, their representatives’ personal capabilities, how early in the negotiation cycle they are active and if they gain insider status with government delegations. As lobbyists remain outsiders, their influence remains usually low. Advocacy NGOs also strive to influence climate negotiations from outside the conference center with demonstrations. Their influence depends on a clear message, favorable media coverage, a critical mass representing a majority of voters and peaceful protest.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment in its series Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Working Papers with number 70.

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    Date of creation: Dec 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:lsg:lsgwps:wp70

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    1. Michele M. Betsill & Elisabeth Corell, 2001. "NGO Influence in International Environmental Negotiations: A Framework for Analysis," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 1(4), pages 65-85, November.
    2. Haas, Peter M., 1992. "Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(01), pages 1-35, December.
    3. Putnam, Robert D., 1988. "Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 427-460, June.
    4. Gullberg, Anne Therese, 2008. "Lobbying friends and foes in climate policy: The case of business and environmental interest groups in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 2954-2962, August.
    5. Lars H. Gulbrandsen & Steinar Andresen, 2004. "NGO Influence in the Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol: Compliance, Flexibility Mechanisms, and Sinks," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 4(4), pages 54-75, November.
    6. Robert Falkner & Hannes Stephan & John Vogler, 2010. "International climate policy after Copenhagen: towards a ‘building blocks’ approach," Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Working Papers 21, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
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