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Time Allocation between Work and Family over the Life-Cycle: A Comparative Gender Analysis of Italy, France, Sweden and the United States

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Author Info

  • Anxo, Dominique

    ()
    (Växjö University)

  • Flood, Lennart

    ()
    (University of Gothenburg)

  • Mencarini, Letizia

    ()
    (University of Florence)

  • Pailhé, Ariane

    ()
    (INED, France)

  • Solaz, Anne

    ()
    (INED, France)

  • Tanturri, Maria Letizia

    ()
    (University of Pavia)

Abstract

This article analyses the extent to which changes in household composition over the life course affect the gender division of labour. It identifies and analyses cross-country disparities between France, Italy, Sweden and United States, using most recent data available from the Time Use National Surveys. We focus on gender differences in the allocation of time between market work, domestic work and leisure over the life-cycle. In order to map the life-cycle, we distinguish between nine key cross-country comparable life stages according to age and family structure such as exiting parental home, union formation, parenthood, and retiring from work. By using appropriate regression techniques (Tobit with selection, Tobit and OLS), we show large discrepancies in the gender division of labour at the different life stages. This gender gap exists in all countries at any stage of the life course, but is usually smaller at the two ends of the age distribution, and larger with parenthood. Beyond social norms, the impact of parenthood on time allocation varies across countries, being smaller in those where work-family balance policies are more effective and traditionally well-established.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3193.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3193

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Related research

Keywords: time use; gender; life-cycle; paid and unpaid work;

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References

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  1. James J. Heckman, 1977. "Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System," NBER Working Papers 0177, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Gerda R. Neyer, 2003. "Family policies and low fertility in Western Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-021, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  4. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Peter McDonald, 2000. "Gender Equity in Theories of Fertility Transition," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 26(3), pages 427-439.
  6. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2002. "Timing, togetherness and time windfalls," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 601-623.
  7. Burda, Michael C. & Hamermesh, Daniel S. & Weil, Philippe, 2006. "The Distribution of Total Work in the EU and US," IZA Discussion Papers 2270, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Neyer, Gerda, 2003. "Family Policies and Low Fertility in Western Europe," Discussion Paper 161, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
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Cited by:
  1. Emilio Zagheni & Marina Zannella, 2013. "The life cycle dimension of time transfers in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(35), pages 937-948, November.
  2. Elena Stancanelli & Hans Bloemen & Silvia Pasqua, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of the Time Allocation of Italian Couples: Are Italian Men Irresponsive?," Sciences Po publications 2008-111/3, Sciences Po.
  3. Melinda Mills & Katia Begall & Letizia Mencarini & Maria Letizia Tanturri, 2008. "Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 18(1), pages 1-26, February.
  4. Matteo Richiardi & Ambra Poggi, 2012. "Imputing Individual Effects in Dynamic Microsimulation Models. An application of the Rank Method," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 267, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
  5. repec:dgr:uvatin:2008111 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Katz, Katarina & Sand, Lena, 2008. "Household specialisation and gender equality in transition. Paid and unpaid work of women and men in Soviet and post-Soviet Taganrog," Working Papers in Economics 307, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  7. Kotsadam, Andreas, 2009. "Effects of informal eldercare on female labor supply in different European welfare states," Working Papers in Economics 353, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  8. Ambra Poggi & Matteo Richiardi, 2012. "Accounting for Unobserved Heterogeneity in Discrete-time, Discrete-choice Dynamic Microsimulation Models. An application to Labor Supply and Household Formation in Italy," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 117, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.

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