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How to Increase R&D in Transition Economies? Evidence from Slovenia

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Author Info

  • Domadenik, Polona

    ()
    (University of Ljubljana)

  • Prašnikar, Janez

    ()
    (University of Ljubljana)

  • Svejnar, Jan

    ()
    (Columbia University)

Abstract

Paper addresses the recent initiatives of EU Lisbon Agenda to increase level of R&D expenses in EU Member States by studying firm-level panel data in most advanced transition economy, Slovenia. Previous empirical literature – mainly cross-sectional – has tested the demand-pull hypothesis and found in overall that R&D expenses may be driven by output. Using a panel of over 150 Slovene firms over the 1996-2000 period, and checking for fixed effects, time, industrial and size dummies and for the path-dependent nature of R&D, we also find a significant role of sales in inducing R&D expenditures. Besides that data also confirm that internal funds and (un)successful bargaining for higher wages present significant variables for higher R&D expenses. However, at the micro level, the demand-pull, internal funds and bargaining effects play a varying role for the different sub-samples of firms. In particular, exporting firms, those which are liquidity-constrained, those not receiving public subsidies and those not heading a business group, seem to be particularly sensitive in deciding their R&D expenditures. R&D behavior at the firm level is modeled as error-correction model and estimated in system GMM specification.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2801.

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Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: May 2007
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Review of Development Economics, 12(1), 193-208
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2801

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Keywords: institutions; openness; R&D investment; firms in transition; transition; employee ownership and control;

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References

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  1. Bronwyn H. Hall, Jacques Mairesse, Lee Branstetter, and Bruno Crepon., 1998. "Does Cash Flow Cause Investment and R& D: An Exploration Using Panel Data for French, Japanese, and United States Scientific Firms," Economics Working Papers 98-260, University of California at Berkeley.
  2. Kazuhiko Hayakawa, 2005. "Small Sample Bias Propreties of the System GMM Estimator in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d05-82, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  3. Hahn, Jinyong & Hausman, Jerry, 2002. "Notes on bias in estimators for simultaneous equation models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 237-241, April.
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  5. Polona Domadenik & Janez Prašnikar & Jan Svejnar, 2003. "Defensive and Strategic Restructuring of Firms during the Transition to a Market Economy," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 541, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  6. Charles P. Himmelberg & Bruce C. Petersen, 1991. "R&D and internal finance: a panel study of small firms in high-tech industries," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
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  14. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
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Cited by:
  1. Hashi, Iraj & Stojčić, Nebojša, 2013. "The impact of innovation activities on firm performance using a multi-stage model: Evidence from the Community Innovation Survey 4," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 353-366.

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