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Small sample bias properties of the system GMM estimator in dynamic panel data models

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  • Hayakawa, Kazuhiko

Abstract

This paper examines analytically and experimentally why the system GMM estimator in dynamic panel data models is less biased than the first differencing or the level estimators even though the former uses more instruments. We find that the bias of the system GMM estimator is a weighted sum of the biases in opposite directions of the first differencing and the level estimator. We also find that an important condition for the system GMM estimator to have small bias is that the variances of the individual effects and the disturbances are almost of the same magnitude. If the variance of individual effects is much larger than that of disturbances, then all GMM estimators are heavily biased. To reduce such biases, we propose bias-corrected GMM estimators. On the other hand, if the variance of individual effects is smaller than that of disturbances, the system estimator has a more severe downward bias than the level estimator.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Economics Letters.

Volume (Year): 95 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (April)
Pages: 32-38

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Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:95:y:2007:i:1:p:32-38

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  1. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  2. Hsiao,Cheng, 2003. "Analysis of Panel Data," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521818551, April.
  3. Koenker, Roger & Machado, Jose A. F., 1999. "GMM inference when the number of moment conditions is large," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 327-344, December.
  4. Jinyong Hahn & Jerry Hausman & Guido Kuersteiner, 2005. "Bias Corrected Instrumental Variables Estimation for Dynamic Panel Models with Fixed E¤ects," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2005-024, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  5. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  6. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  7. Kiviet, Jan F., 1995. "On bias, inconsistency, and efficiency of various estimators in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 53-78, July.
  8. Maurice J.G. Bun & Jan F. Kiviet, 2002. "The Effects of Dynamic Feedbacks on LS and MM Estimator Accuracy in Panel Data Models," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-101/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 19 Feb 2004.
  9. Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-29, October.
  10. Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
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