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Public Health Insurance Expansions and Hospital Technology Adoption

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  • Seth Freedman

    (Indiana University)

  • Haizhen Lin

    (Department of Business Economics and Public Policy, Indiana University Kelley School of Business)

  • Kosali Simon

    (Indiana University and NBER)

Abstract

This paper explores the effects of public health insurance expansions on hospitals’ decisions to adopt medical technology. Specifically, we test whether the expansion of Medicaid eligibility for pregnant women during the 1980s and 1990s affected hospitals’ decisions to adopt neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). While the Medicaid expansion insured a substantial number of pregnant women who would otherwise have been uninsured, prior literature also finds that some newly insured women would otherwise have been covered by more generously-reimbursed private sources. This leads to a theoretically ambiguous net effect of Medicaid expansion on a hospital’s incentive to invest in technology. Using American Hospital Association (AHA) data, we find that on average Medicaid expansions had no statistically significant effect on NICU adoption. However, we find that in geographic areas where more of the newly Medicaid-insured may have come from the privately insured population, Medicaid expansion slowed NICU adoption. This holds true particularly when Medicaid payment rates were very low relative to private payment rates. Our findings suggest that despite the fact that on average Medicaid expansions did not affect the proliferation of NICUs in the 1980s and 1990s, the Medicaid-induced shifts from private to public coverage slowed NICU adoption. This finding is consistent with prior evidence on reduced NICU adoption from increased managed care penetration. We conclude by providing suggestive evidence on the health impacts of this deceleration of NICU diffusion, and by discussing the policy implications of our work for insurance expansions associated with the Affordable Care Act.

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File URL: http://www.bus.indiana.edu/riharbau/RePEc/iuk/wpaper/bepp2012-08-freedman-lin-simon.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy in its series Working Papers with number 2012-08.

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Date of creation: Oct 2012
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Handle: RePEc:iuk:wpaper:2012-08

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  1. Currie, Janet & Gruber, Jonathan & Fischer, Michael, 1995. "Physician Payments and Infant Mortality: Evidence from Medicaid Fee Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 106-11, May.
  2. Currie, Janet & Gruber, Jonathan, 2001. "Public health insurance and medical treatment: the equalizing impact of the Medicaid expansions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 63-89, October.
  3. Jonathan Skinner & Douglas Staiger, 2007. "Technology Adoption from Hybrid Corn to Beta-Blockers," NBER Chapters, in: Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches, pages 545-570 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  7. Thomas DeLeire & Leonard Lopoo & Kosali Simon, 2011. "Medicaid Expansions and Fertility in the United States," Demography, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 725-747, May.
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  16. Baker, Laurence C., 2001. "Managed care and technology adoption in health care: evidence from magnetic resonance imaging," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 395-421, May.
  17. Daron Acemoglu & Amy Finkelstein, 2006. "Input and Technology Choices in Regulated Industries: Evidence From the Health Care Sector," NBER Working Papers 12254, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  19. Jeffrey Clemens, 2013. "The Effect of U.S. Health Insurance Expansions on Medical Innovation," NBER Working Papers 19761, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Amy Finkelstein, 2004. "Static and Dynamic Effects of Health Policy: Evidence From the Vaccine Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(2), pages 527-564, May.
  21. Margaret E. Blume-Kohout & Neeraj Sood, 2008. "The Impact of Medicare Part D on Pharmaceutical R&D," NBER Working Papers 13857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Craig L. Garthwaite, 2011. "The Doctor Might See You Now: The Supply Side Effects of Public Health Insurance Expansions," NBER Working Papers 17070, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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