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Los escollos del diseño de políticas en Perú: actores, instituciones y las reglas del juego

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  • Eduardo Morón
  • Cynthia Sanborn

Abstract

(Documento disponible solo en Inglés) El proceso de diseño de políticas en Perú a lo largo de los últimos 25 años ha estado dominado principalmente por el Poder Ejecutivo y ha acusado los efectos de una gama de factores estructurales y políticos, así como los de los objetivos personales de presidentes y de la percepción general de las crisis. Con pocas excepciones, ni el Congreso ni los demás poderes y niveles del gobierno han desempeñado papeles eficaces en la definición del programa de políticas nacionales, lo que ha fomentado la cooperación a través del tiempo y ha proporcionado mecanismos de frenos y contrapesos al poder del Ejecutivo. Ello obedece en parte a los arreglos constitucionales, pero también a los resultados electorales y en parte a las debilidades históricas de los partidos políticos y otros actores. Aunque esta situación se ha modificado en parte desde 2001, no está claro si el patrón general ha cambiado. Si bien ciertas áreas de la toma de decisiones han cambiado en años recientes, en muchos ámbitos el proceso de diseño de políticas sigue siendo arbitrario e impredecible, lo que acarrea políticas de baja calidad, precariamente aplicadas y fácilmente reversibles. Aunque reformar algunos aspectos de los sistemas políticos y electorales puede contribuir al mejoramiento de este resultado, la inestabilidad del régimen político propiamente dicho ha sido un factor disuasorio del desarrollo institucional de más largo plazo.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3203.

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Date of creation: Apr 2006
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3203

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  1. Lee J. Alston & Marcus André Melo & Bernardo Mueller & Carlos Pereira, 2006. "Political Institutions, Policymaking Processes and Policy Outcomes in Brazil," IDB Publications 39698, Inter-American Development Bank.
  2. John McMillan & Pablo Zoido, 2004. "How to Subvert Democracy: Montesinos in Peru," CESifo Working Paper Series 1173, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Mariano Tommasi & Pablo T. Spiller & Ernesto Stein, 2003. "Political Institutions, Policymaking Processes, and Policy Outcomes. An Intertemporal Transactions Framework," Working Papers 59, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Jul 2003.
  4. Pablo T. Spiller, 2003. "The Institutional Foundations of Public Policy: A Transactions Approach with Application to Argentina," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(2), pages 281-306, October.
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