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Measurement of Chronic and Transient Poverty: Theory and Application to Pakistan

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  • Kurosaki, Takashi
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    Abstract

    This paper investigates how to characterize each person's poverty status when his/her welfare level fluctuates and how to aggregate the status into chronic and transient poverty measures. The contribution of the paper is to clarify the sensitivity of relative magnitudes of chronic versus transient poverty to the choice of a poverty measure. We show this by theoretically re-examining Ravallion's (1988) decomposition of the expected value of a poverty measure into chronic and transient components. The examination covers major poverty measures including those developed by Foster et al. (1985), which are used extensively in the existing studies. Our analysis shows that the chronic-transient decomposition using the squared poverty gap index might be too sensitive to the poverty line and that the index is justified only if we accept that the welfare cost of consumption fluctuation is independent of the depth of chronic poverty. If we instead believe that the decomposition should not be too sensitive to the poverty line and that the welfare cost of risk is more severe when an individual's chronic poverty is deeper, other poverty measures such as suggested by Clark et al. (1981) are useful. We also investigate how empirically different are the relative magnitudes of chronic versus transient poverty, depending on the choice of a poverty measure. Based on a two-period household panel dataset collected in Pakistan, we show that the difference is substantial even when the poorest experienced only a small fluctuation in their consumption.

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    File URL: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/13808/1/DP436.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number a436.

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    Length: 30 p.
    Date of creation: Mar 2003
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hit:hituec:a436

    Note: February 2003, References: p. 19-20
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    Keywords: chronic poverty; transient poverty; risk; poverty measurement;

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    References

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    1. Takashi Kurosaki & Marcel Fafchamps, 1998. "Insurance Market Efficiency and Crop Choices in Pakistan," Discussion Paper Series a358, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    2. Bob Baulch & John Hoddinott, 2000. "Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 1-24.
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    Cited by:
    1. Takashi Kurosaki, 2006. "The measurement of transient poverty: Theory and application to Pakistan," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 325-345, December.
    2. Guillermo Cruces, 2005. "Income Fluctuation, Poverty and Well-Being Over Time: Theory and Application to Argentina," STICERD - Distributional Analysis Research Programme Papers 76, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    3. World Bank, 2007. "Social Protection in Pakistan : Managing Household Risks and Vulnerability," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7660, The World Bank.
    4. Guillermo Cruces, 2005. "Income fluctuation, poverty and well-being over time: theory and application to Argentina," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6545, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.

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