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Evaluation of the Swedish earned income tax credit

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Author Info

  • Edmark, Karin

    ()
    (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies)

  • Liang, Che-Yuan

    ()
    (Department of Economics)

  • Mörk, Eva

    ()
    (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies)

  • Selin, Håkan

    ()
    (Department of Economics)

Abstract

Over the last twenty years we have seen an increasing use of in-work tax subsidies to encourage labor supply among low-income groups. In Sweden, a non-targeted earned income tax credit was introduced in 2007, and was reinforced in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The stated motive of the reform was to boost employment; in particular to provide incentives for individuals to go from unemployment to, at least, part-time work. In this paper we try to analyze the extensive margin labor supply effects of the Swedish earned income tax credit reform up to 2008. For identification we exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit, as well as the resulting average tax rate, is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working. However, throughout the analysis we find placebo effects that are similar in size to the estimated reform effects. In addition, the results are sensitive with respect to how we define employment, which is especially true when we analyze different subgroups such as men and women, married and singles. Our conclusion is that the identifying variation is too small and potentially endogenous and that it is therefore not possible to use this variation to perform a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Swedish EITC-reform.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Uppsala University, Department of Economics in its series Working Paper Series, Center for Labor Studies with number 2012:3.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: 17 Jan 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:uulswp:2012_003

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Postal: Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
Phone: + 46 18 471 25 00
Fax: + 46 18 471 14 78
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Web page: http://www.nek.uu.se/
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Keywords: Labor supply; labor force participation; tax incentives;

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References

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  1. Aaberge, Rolf & Flood, Lennart, 2008. "Evaluation of an In-Work Tax Credit Reform in Sweden: Effects on Labor Supply and Welfare Participation of Single Mothers," IZA Discussion Papers 3736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Bosch, Nicole & van der Klaauw, Bas, 2009. "Analyzing Female Labor Supply: Evidence from a Dutch Tax Reform," IZA Discussion Papers 4238, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Flood, Lennart & Pylkkänen, Elina & Wahlberg, Roger, 2003. "From Welfare to Work: Evaluating a Proposed Tax and Benefit Reform Targeted at Single Mothers in Sweden," IZA Discussion Papers 891, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Nada Eissa & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2006. "Behavioral Responses to Taxes: Lessons from the EITC and Labor Supply," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 20, pages 73-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Nada Eissa & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1995. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Working Papers 5158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Lee, David & Saez, Emannuel, 2010. "Optimal Minimum Wage Policy in Competitive Labor Markets," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt07w2z7t6, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  7. Lennart Flood & Jörgen Hansen & Roger Wahlberg, 2004. "Household Labor Supply and Welfare Participation in Sweden," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(4).
  8. Tonin, Mirco & Kolm, Ann-Sofie, 2011. "In-Work Benefits and Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 5473, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Forslund, Anders, 2009. "Labour supply incentives, income support systems and taxes in Sweden," Working Paper Series 2009:30, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  10. Ericson, Peter & Flood, Lennart & Wahlberg, Roger, 2009. "SWEtaxben: A Swedish Tax/Benefit Micro Simulation Model and an Evaluation of a Swedish Tax Reform," IZA Discussion Papers 4106, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Alexander M. Gelber, 2010. "Taxes and Time Allocation: Evidence from Single Women," 2010 Meeting Papers 1031, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  12. Jesse Rothstein, 2009. "Is the EITC as Good as an NIT? Conditional Cash Transfers and Tax Incidence," Working Papers 1160, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
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Cited by:
  1. Aaberge, Rolf & Flood, Lennart, 2013. "U.S. versus Sweden: The Effect of Alternative In-Work Tax Credit Policies on Labour Supply of Single Mothers," IZA Discussion Papers 7706, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Egebark, Johan & Kaunitz, Niklas, 2014. "Do payroll tax cuts raise youth employment?," Research Papers in Economics 2014:1, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  3. Stéphanie Jamet & Thomas Chalaux & Vincent Koen, 2013. "Labour Market and Social Policies to Foster More Inclusive Growth in Sweden," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1023, OECD Publishing.
  4. Johan Fritzell & Jennie Bacchus-hertzman & O. Bäckman & I. Borg & T. Ferrarini & K. Nelson, 2010. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Sweden," GINI Country Reports sweden, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.

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