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Evaluation of the Swedish earned income tax credit

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Author Info

  • Edmark, Karin

    ()
    (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))

  • Liang, Che-Yuan

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)

  • Mörk, Eva

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)

  • Selin, Håkan

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)

Abstract

Over the last twenty years we have seen an increasing use of in-work tax subsidies to encourage labor supply among low-income groups. In Sweden, a non-targeted earned income tax credit was introduced in 2007, and was reinforced in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The stated motive of the reform was to boost employment; in particular to provide incentives for individuals to go from unemployment to, at least, part-time work. In this paper we try to analyze the extensive margin labor supply effects of the Swedish earned income tax credit reform up to 2008. For identification we exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit, as well as the resulting average tax rate, is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working. However, throughout the analysis we find placebo effects that are similar in size to the estimated reform effects. In addition, the results are sensitive with respect to how we define employment, which is especially true when we analyze different subgroups such as men and women, married and singles. Our conclusion is that the identifying variation is too small and potentially endogenous and that it is therefore not possible to use this variation to perform a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Swedish EITC-reform.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy in its series Working Paper Series with number 2012:1.

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Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: 17 Jan 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:ifauwp:2012_001

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Keywords: Labor supply; labor force participation; tax incentives;

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References

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  1. Ericson, Peter & Flood, Lennart & Wahlberg, Roger, 2009. "SWEtaxben: A Swedish Tax/Benefit Micro Simulation Model and an Evaluation of a Swedish Tax Reform," IZA Discussion Papers 4106, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Flood, Lennart & Hansen, Jörgen & Wahlberg, Roger, 2003. "Household Labor Supply and Welfare Participation in Sweden," IZA Discussion Papers 769, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Alexander M. Gelber & Joshua W. Mitchell, 2009. "Taxes and Time Allocation: Evidence from Single Women," NBER Working Papers 15583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Ann-Sofie Kolm & Mirco Tonin, 2011. "In-work benefits and unemployment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 74-92, February.
  5. Bosch, Nicole & van der Klaauw, Bas, 2012. "Analyzing female labor supply — Evidence from a Dutch tax reform," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 271-280.
  6. Flood, Lennart & Pylkkänen, Elina & Wahlberg, Roger, 2003. "From Welfare to Work: Evaluating a Proposed Tax and Benefit Reform Targeted at Single Mothers in Sweden," Working Papers in Economics 107, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  7. Nada Eissa & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1995. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Working Papers 5158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Nada Eissa & Hilary Hoynes, 2005. "Behavioral Responses to Taxes: Lessons from the EITC and Labor Supply," NBER Working Papers 11729, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Aaberge, Rolf & Flood, Lennart, 2008. "Evaluation of an In-Work Tax Credit Reform in Sweden: Effects on Labor Supply and Welfare Participation of Single Mothers," IZA Discussion Papers 3736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Jesse Rothstein, 2009. "Is the EITC as Good as an NIT? Conditional Cash Transfers and Tax Incidence," Working Papers 1160, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
  11. Lee, David & Saez, Emannuel, 2010. "Optimal Minimum Wage Policy in Competitive Labor Markets," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt07w2z7t6, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  12. Forslund, Anders, 2009. "Labour supply incentives, income support systems and taxes in Sweden," Working Paper Series 2009:30, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
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Cited by:
  1. Egebark, Johan & Kaunitz, Niklas, 2013. "Do payroll tax cuts raise youth employment?," Working Paper Series 2013:27, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  2. Johan Fritzell & Jennie Bacchus-hertzman & O. Bäckman & I. Borg & T. Ferrarini & K. Nelson, 2010. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Sweden," GINI Country Reports sweden, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  3. Rolf Aaberge & Lennart Flood, 2013. "U.S. versus Sweden. The effect of alternative in-work tax credit policies on labour supply of single mothers," Discussion Papers 761, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  4. Stéphanie Jamet & Thomas Chalaux & Vincent Koen, 2013. "Labour Market and Social Policies to Foster More Inclusive Growth in Sweden," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1023, OECD Publishing.

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