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Conséquences de la diffusion des innovations technologiques sur l'emploi industriel en Tunisie : Une analyse par les données de panel

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  • Sami Saafi

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    (LAB-RII - Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation - Université de Littoral Côte d'Opale, Unité de Recherche d'Analyses Quantitatives Appliquées - (Université de Tunis)

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    Abstract

    L'objectif de cet article est, en s'inspirant de la théorie de compensation, de déterminer les effets, de court et de long terme, de la diffusion des innovations technologiques sur l'emploi pour le cas d'un pays en développement (en l'occurrence la Tunisie). Nos résultats montrent que, si l'effet à court terme des innovations technologiques importées et des brevets sur l'emploi est positif, cet effet est négatif à moyen et long terme. Ce résultat contredit les prédictions théoriques. Cette contradiction peut être expliquée par le fait que l'économie tunisienne demeure fondamentalement consommatrice et encore très peu productrice des innovations technologiques. La complémentarité entre capital et travail explique ainsi l'augmentation de court terme de l'emploi suite à l'augmentation des importations de technologies. Néanmoins, à moyen et long terme les entreprises tunisiennes semblent ne pas pouvoir mettre leur technologie à niveau. Dans la plupart des entreprises, la majorité des inputs sont importés employant des machines souvent déjà obsolètes et une main d'oeuvre très peu qualifiée. Le processus n'implique donc pas l'apprentissage, ni la formation massive de cadres ou de techniciens, ni la production de technologies similaires. Quand les firmes peuvent tirer parti des nouvelles technologies, les investisseurs sont encouragés à créer des entreprises et des emplois nouveaux. S'ajoute l'existence de contraintes à la mobilité de la main-d'oeuvre. Ces contraintes semblent avoir empêcher le bon fonctionnement des mécanismes de compensation

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    Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number hal-00477357.

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    Date of creation: 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00477357

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    1. Tommaso Antonucci & Mario Pianta, 2002. "Employment Effects of Product and Process Innovation in Europe," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 295-307.
    2. Harrison, Rupert & Jaumandreu, Jordi & Mairesse, Jacques & Peters, Bettina, 2014. "Does innovation stimulate employment? A firm-level analysis using comparable micro-data from four European countries," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 29-43.
    3. Vivarelli, Marco, 2007. "Innovation and Employment: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2621, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. repec:sae:niesru:v:111:y::i:1:p:62-85 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
    6. Katsoulacos, Y., 1984. "Product innovation and employment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-2), pages 83-108.
    7. Richard R. Nelson, 1959. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 297.
    8. Nickell, S. & Komg, P., 1989. "Technical Progress And Jobs," Papers, London School of Economics - Centre for Labour Economics 366, London School of Economics - Centre for Labour Economics.
    9. Peters, Bettina, 2004. "Employment Effects of Different Innovation Activities: Microeconometric Evidence," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-73, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    10. Van Reenen, John, 1997. "Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 255-84, April.
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