Regulating Child Care: The Effects of State Regulations on Child Care Demand and Its Cost
AbstractIn this paper, we examine the effects of existing state-level child care regulations on the cost, or price, of non-parental child care, the demand for (non-parental) child care by parents, and the mother's decision to enter the labor force. We distinguish between the indirect effects of regulations on demand via their effect on the cost of such care facing parents as well and the direct (and non-price) effects regulations may have by imposing standards in the form of minimum levels of quality on available care facing parents. In our empirical analysis, we analyze the child care decisions of all parents with preschool age children, including households with working and non-working mothers, using child care data from the 1986 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS72). We present estimates of the effects of two sets of regulations--namely, restrictions on child-to-staff ratios in day care centers and educational and/or training requirements of workers in either centers or home day care setting â as well as two types of child care subsidies â child care tax credit for working mothers and subsidies to providers â on the child care and maternal work decisions of households as well as on the hourly cost of child care. Our evidence indicates that state regulations both increase the cost of child care as well as have direct (non-price) effects on utilization but that their total effect tends to reduce the utilization of market-based child care, especially among households with non-working mothers. Since economically disadvantaged and black women are disproportionately represented in the latter group, it appears that one of the consequences of regulations are to defer the utilization of child care by households with children for whom the purported developmental benefits of organized day care might be most beneficial.
Download InfoTo our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Chicago - Population Research Center in its series University of Chicago - Population Research Center with number 94-10.
Date of creation:
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: University of Chicago. Population Research Center. NORC and the University of Chicago. 1155 E. 60th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637.
Web page: http://www.spc.uchicago.edu/prc/
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Joseph Hotz & M. Rebecca Kilbourn, 1994. "Regulating Child Care: The Effects of State Regulations on child Care Demand and Its Cost," Working Papers 9405, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- William T. Gormley Jr., 2007. "Early childhood care and education: Lessons and puzzles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 633-671.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.