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Regime-switching monetary policy and real business cycle fluctuations

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  • Fangxiong Gong
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    Abstract

    This paper investigates the implications of a regime switching monetary policy on real business cycle fluctuations. In a Cash-in-Advance model, a regime switching monetary policy with the typical observed business cycle durations could cause sizable fluctuations in real variables such as consumption, and to a lesser extent, investment. The correlations of these real variables with output matched those in the data very well. It is also found that the expected durations of the monetary policy in each regime have a significant effect on the fluctuation of real variables such as consumption and investment. In the longer duration case, the agents would supply more hours and invest less (thus consume more) in the low inflation regime than in the high inflation regime. However, if the monetary policy has a very short expected duration in each regime and switches a lot between the states, the agents' decision rules in different regimes will be close, and contrary to the long duration case, hours are a little lower and investment a little higher in the lower money growth regime than in the higher growth regime. The findings are consistent with the agents' behavior with rational expectations. Adding monetary shock in real business cycle models helps to explain the fluctuations not only in monetary and price variables, but also in real variables. Compared to a non-monetary model, the variations in the model economy are closer to what we see in the data. The implication is that, if there are different policy regimes and people are uncertain about the timing of policy changes, then the expected duration of monetary policy could affect the size of business cycle fluctuations even in a world where agents are assumed to behave rationally and there are no "confusions" or "rigidities."

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Research Paper with number 9528.

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    Date of creation: 1995
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    Handle: RePEc:fip:fednrp:9528

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    Keywords: Business cycles ; Monetary policy ; Inflation (Finance);

    References

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    1. Gary D. Hansen & Edward C. Prescott, 1992. "Recursive methods for computing equilibria of business cycle models," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 36, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    2. Gray, Jo Anna, 1976. "Wage indexation: A macroeconomic approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 221-235, April.
    3. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
    4. Cooley, T.F. & Hansen, G.D., 1988. "The Inflation Tax In A Real Business Cycle Model," Papers 88-05, Rochester, Business - General.
    5. Rudebusch, Glenn D., 1995. "Federal Reserve interest rate targeting, rational expectations, and the term structure," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 245-274, April.
    6. Edward C. Prescott, 1993. "Effects of alternative monetary stabilization policies: an unexpected finding," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 93-06, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    7. Fischer, Stanley, 1977. "Long-Term Contracts, Rational Expectations, and the Optimal Money Supply Rule," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(1), pages 191-205, February.
    8. Parkin, Michael, 1986. "The Output-Inflation Trade-off When Prices Are Costly to Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(1), pages 200-224, February.
    9. Taylor, John B, 1979. "Staggered Wage Setting in a Macro Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(2), pages 108-13, May.
    10. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum, 1992. "Liquidity effects and the monetary transmission mechanism," Staff Report 150, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    11. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1975. "An Equilibrium Model of the Business Cycle," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(6), pages 1113-44, December.
    12. Cooley, T.F. & Ohanian, L.E., 1989. "The Cyclical Behavior Of Prices," RCER Working Papers 188, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
    13. Mankiw, N Gregory, 1985. "Small Menu Costs and Large Business Cycles: A Macroeconomic Model," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(2), pages 529-38, May.
    14. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-84, March.
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    Cited by:
    1. Fischer, Andreas & Michael J Dueker & Robert D Dittmar, 2003. "Stochastic Capital Depreciation and the Comovement of Hours and Productivity," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 80, Royal Economic Society.

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