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Allocation and Productivity of Time in new Ventures of Female and Male Entrepreneurships

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  • Ingrid Verheul
  • Martin Carree
  • Roy Thurik

Abstract

This paper investigates time allocation decisions in new ventures of female and male entrepreneurs using a new model that distinguishes between effects of preferences (what they like) and productivity (what they are good at) on the number of working hours. Using data of 1203 entrepreneurs we find that the preference for work time in new ventures is related to the motivation for starting up a business, the propensity to take risk and the availability of other income. Productivity of work time is explained by human, financial and social capital and outsourcing. This study also evaluates actual profit effects one year after start-up. With respect to gender we find that – on average – women invest less time in the business than men. This can be attributed to a lower productivity per hour worked, due to lower endowments of human, social and financial capital.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group in its series Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy with number 2006-01.

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Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:egpdis:2006-01

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Keywords: time allocation; preferences; productivity; gender; new ventures;

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References

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  1. Blundell, Richard & Macurdy, Thomas, 1999. "Labor supply: A review of alternative approaches," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1559-1695 Elsevier.
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  5. Martin Carree & Ingrid Verheul, 2009. "Time allocation by the self-employed: the determinants of the number of working hours in start-ups," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(15), pages 1511-1515.
  6. Rosa, Peter & Carter, Sara & Hamilton, Daphne, 1996. " Gender as a Determinant of Small Business Performance: Insights from a British Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(6), pages 463-78, December.
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  8. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. " Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-45, June.
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  14. Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
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  18. Becker, Gary S, 1993. "Nobel Lecture: The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 385-409, June.
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