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Entrepreneurship in Pakistan

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  • Nadeem Ul Haque

    (PIDE)

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    Abstract

    Entrepreneurship is viewed by economists to be a combination of innovation and risk taking. When such activity thrives, high growth rates are achieved as well as opportunities offered to all segments of society, including the poor. The latter benefit form growth and employment as well as throughopportunities for entrepreneurship. In Pakistan innovation and risk taking is severely inhibited by the intrusive role of government in the marketplace. From the early days of planning when protection and subsidy polic ies determined winners in the market place, entrepreneurship has been diverted to seeking government favours. Government economic policy also seeks to promote growth through a basically mercantilist approach where domestic commerce through seriously neglect is heavily regulated. This sector either employs most of the poor or offers them entrepreneurial opportunities. Hence deregulating this sector could be a priority in and anti-poor strategy. The paper also argues that land distribution and city zoning and management have also evolved to further reinforce the prevalent rent seeking path to success. The result is that cities are by design not allowed to become clusters of commerce that will be entrepreneur friendly. These clusters of dense urban commerce are magnets of employment and opportunity for the poor. To develop an entrepreneurship culture in the country, the system of incentives (laws and policies) that promote rent seeking will have to be dismantled. This paper presents an analysis of the state of entrepreneurship/rent seeking prevailing in Pakistan. This analysis allows us to obtain and understanding of the kinds of reforms (including legislative changes) that are required to develop entrepreneurship.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by East Asian Bureau of Economic Research in its series Microeconomics Working Papers with number 22190.

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    Date of creation: Jan 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:eab:microe:22190

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    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; New Firm; Startups;

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    References

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    1. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1993. "Endogenous Innovation in the Theory of Growth," NBER Working Papers 4527, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Nadeem Ul Haque, 2006. "Awake the Sleeper Within: Releasing the Energy of Stifled Domestic Commerce!," PIDE-Working Papers, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics 2006:11, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    3. Acemoglu, Daron, 1996. "A Microfoundation for Social Increasing Returns in Human Capital Accumulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 779-804, August.
    4. Paul M. Romer, 1994. "The Origins of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 3-22, Winter.
    5. John Haltiwanger, 2000. "Aggregate Growth: What Have We Learned from Microeconomic Evidence?," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 267, OECD Publishing.
    6. Shapiro,Helen, 2006. "Engines of Growth," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521025003.
    7. Paul Romer, 1989. "Endogenous Technological Change," NBER Working Papers 3210, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2232, David K. Levine.
    9. Din, Musleh-ud & Abbas, Kalbe, 2000. "Uruguay Round Agreement and Pakistan's Trade in Textiles and Clothing," MPRA Paper 4903, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2000.
    10. David B. Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 2001. "Linking Entrepreneurship to Growth," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2001/2, OECD Publishing.
    11. Say, Jean-Baptiste, 1880. "A Treatise on Political Economy; or the Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Wealth," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, edition 4, number say1880.
    12. Marcus Dejardin, 2006. "L'entrepreneuriat, le territoire et les conditions de leurs dynamiques cumulatives," Post-Print halshs-00089329, HAL.
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