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Childhood Health and Sibling Outcomes: The Shared Burden of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

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  • John Parman

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    (Department of Economics, College of William and Mary)

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    Abstract

    The impacts of a negative health shock during childhood can have long term consequences for a person in terms of health, human capital formation and labor market outcomes. However, the effects of the health shock are not necessarily limited to the afflicted individual. By raising the costs of the child both in terms of health care and human capital investment, the health shock impacts a family's resource allocation decisions. As a result, a significant negative health shock for one child can influence the outcomes of his or her healthy siblings. This paper uses the 1918 influenza pandemic to assess the ways in which a major negative health shock influences family planning and investment decisions. By linking educational and health data from military records to census information on childhood households, I show that the influenza pandemic impacted levels of investment in not only those children born during the pandemic but also their siblings. The results suggest that having a child born during the pandemic led families to shift educational investments to older children. Older siblings of a child born during the pandemic received an additional quarter year of education while younger siblings received slightly less education relative to individuals without a sibling born during the pandemic. These results suggest that the effects of childhood health shocks on siblings are an important consideration when evaluating the potential consequences of childhood health interventions.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Department of Economics, College of William and Mary in its series Working Papers with number 121.

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    Length: 48 pages
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    Handle: RePEc:cwm:wpaper:121

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    1. Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell Salvanes, 2005. "From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 11796, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Case, Anne & Fertig, Angela & Paxson, Christina, 2005. "The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 365-389, March.
    3. Janet Currie, 2009. "Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: Socioeconomic Status, Poor Health in Childhood, and Human Capital Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(1), pages 87-122, March.
    4. Phil Oreopoulos & Mark Stabile & Randy Walld & Leslie Roos, 2006. "Short, Medium, and Long Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis using Siblings and Twins," NBER Working Papers 11998, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    7. Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2006. "Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 450-474, July.
    8. Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & Victor Lavy & Rekha Menon, 2001. "Child Health and School Enrollment: A Longitudinal Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 185-205.
    9. Achyuta Adhvaryu & Anant Nyshadham, 2011. "Endowments and Investment within the Household: Evidence from Iodine Supplementation in Tanzania," Working Papers 998, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    10. Behrman, Jere R & Pollak, Robert A & Taubman, Paul, 1982. "Parental Preferences and Provision for Progeny," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(1), pages 52-73, February.
    11. Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2004. "Returns to Birthweight," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 586-601, May.
    12. Hoyt Bleakley, 2007. "Disease and Development: Evidence from Hookworm Eradication in the American South," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(1), pages 73-117, 02.
    13. Edward Miguel & Michael Kremer, 2004. "Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(1), pages 159-217, 01.
    14. Heather Royer, 2009. "Separated at Girth: US Twin Estimates of the Effects of Birth Weight," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 49-85, January.
    15. Douglas Almond & Janet Currie, 2011. "Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 153-72, Summer.
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