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Political Relationships, Global Financing and Corporate Transparency

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  • Christian Leuz
  • Felix Oberholzer-Gee

Abstract

This study examines the financing choices of firms operating in a weak institutional environment. We argue that in relationship-based systems, global financing and political connections are substitutes: Well-connected firms are less likely to access foreign capital markets because (state-owned) domestic banks provide capital at low cost. Moreover, the additional scrutiny that comes with foreign securities might be at odds with close political ties at home. Using data from Indonesia, we provide strong support for this hypothesis. Firms with close political ties to former President Soeharto are significantly less likely than non-connected firms to have publicly traded foreign securities. We also examine how returns before and during the Asian financial crisis differ between firms with and without foreign securities. The former performed significantly better during the crisis, and their performance advantage increases considerably once we control for a firm?s closeness to the Soeharto regime. We show that simple return regressions in earlier work are downward biased if domestic opportunities such as political connections are ignored.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA) in its series CREMA Working Paper Series with number 2003-03.

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Date of creation: Aug 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cra:wpaper:2003-03

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Keywords: Disclosure; Cross listing; Financing choices; Emerging market economies; Asian financial crisis; Indonesia; Cost of capital;

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  1. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lumsdaine, Robin L., 2002. "Dating the integration of world equity markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 203-247, August.
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  5. Reese, William Jr. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2002. "Protection of minority shareholder interests, cross-listings in the United States, and subsequent equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 65-104, October.
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  7. Blass, Asher & Yafeh, Yishay, 2001. "Vagabond shoes longing to stray: Why foreign firms list in the United States," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 555-572, March.
  8. Mara Faccio, 2006. "Politically Connected Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 369-386, March.
  9. Simon Johnson & Todd Mitton, 2001. "Cronyism and Capital Controls: Evidence from Malaysia," NBER Working Papers 8521, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Errunza, Vihang R. & Miller, Darius P., 2000. "Market Segmentation and the Cost of the Capital in International Equity Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(04), pages 577-600, December.
  11. Fan, Joseph P.H. & Wong, T.J., 2001. "Corporate Ownership Structure and the Informativeness of Accounting Earnings in East Asia," CEI Working Paper Series 2001-21, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  12. Sherman Cheung, C. & Lee, Jason, 1995. "Disclosure environment and listing on foreign stock exchanges," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 347-362, May.
  13. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
  14. Raymond Fisman, 2001. "Estimating the Value of Political Connections," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 1095-1102, September.
  15. Shahrokh M Saudagaran & Gary C Biddle, 1995. "Foreign Listing Location: A Study of MNCs and Stock Exchanges in Eight Countries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(2), pages 319-341, June.
  16. Craig Doidge & G. Andrew Karolyi & Rene M. Stulz, 2001. "Why are Foreign Firms Listed in the U.S. Worth More?," NBER Working Papers 8538, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Merton, Robert C., 1987. "A simple model of capital market equilibrium with incomplete information," Working papers 1869-87., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Rene M. Stulz & Craig Doidge & Andrew Karolyi, 2004. "Why Do Countries Matter So Much for Corporate Governance?," NBER Working Papers 10726, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Allayannis, George & Brown, Gregory W. & Klapper, Leora F., 2005. "Legal effectiveness and external capital : the role of foreign debt," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3530, The World Bank.
  3. Art Durnev & Sergei Guriev, 2007. "The Resource Curse: A Corporate Transparency Channel," Working Papers w0108, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
  4. Bunkanwanicha, Pramuan & Wiwattanakantang, Yupana, 2006. "Big Business Owners and Politics: Investigating the Economic Incentives of Holding Top Office," CEI Working Paper Series 2006-10, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  5. Quoc-Anh Do & Yen-Teik Lee & Bang Dang Nguyen & Kieu-Trang Nguyen, 2013. "Out of Sight, Out of Mind: The Value of Political Connections in Social Networks," Sciences Po publications 14, Sciences Po.
  6. Karl V. Lins & Francis E. Warnock, 2004. "Corporate governance and the shareholder base," International Finance Discussion Papers 816, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Francis , Bill B & Hasan, Iftekhar & Sun, Xian, 2009. "Political connections and the process of going public: evidence from China," Research Discussion Papers 7/2009, Bank of Finland.
  8. Chung, Chi-Nien & Mahmood, Ishtiaq & Mitchell, Will, 2009. "Political Connections and Business Strategy: The Impact of Types and Destinations of Political Ties on Business Diversification in Closed and Open Political Economic," CEI Working Paper Series 2008-24, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  9. Stulze, Rene M., 2008. "Securities Laws, Disclosure, and National Capital Markets in the Age of Financial Globalization," Working Paper Series 2008-13, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.

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