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Trade Policy and the Household Distribution of Income

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  • Francois, Joseph
  • Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo

Abstract

We explore the relationship between import protection and the household distribution of income. We first develop a general-equilibrium mapping from tariffs to household inequality measures. This also yields predictions for linkages between tariffs, development level, and observed household inequality. Working with a new dataset, we then examine cross-country variation in inequality with respect to import protection. Results are consistent with predictions of the factor-intensity model of trade. Regression results suggest that import protection makes income distribution worse for countries in labour-intensive diversification cones. This relationship shifts to one of falling inequality as incomes rise and we move to capital-intensive diversification cones.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 4436.

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Date of creation: Jun 2004
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:4436

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Keywords: atkinson index; distribution of income; gini coefficient; globalization; inequality; tariffs; trade;

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References

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  1. Matthew Higgins & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1999. "Explaining Inequality the World Round: Cohort Size, Kuznets Curves, andOpenness," NBER Working Papers 7224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. L. Alan Winters & Neil McCulloch & Andrew McKay, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: The Evidence So Far," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(1), pages 72-115, March.
  3. Anthony B. Atkinson & Andrea Brandolini, 2000. "Promise and Pitfalls in the Use of 'Secondary' Data-Sets: Income Inequality in OECD Countries," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 379, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  4. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. " Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
  5. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1996. "A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(3), pages 565-91, September.
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  7. Spilimbergo, Antonio & Londono, Juan Luis & Szekely, Miguel, 1999. "Income distribution, factor endowments, and trade openness," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 77-101, June.
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  11. Ianchovichina, Elena & Nicita, Alessandro & Soloaga, Isidro, 2001. "Trade reform and household welfare : the case of Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2667, The World Bank.
  12. Barro, Robert J, 2000. " Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 5-32, March.
  13. Ethier, Wilfred J., 1982. "The general role of factor intensity in the theorems of international trade," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 337-342.
  14. Thomas W. Hertel & Paul V. Preckel & John A.L. Cranfield & Maros Ivanic, 2003. "Multilateral Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Brazil and Chile," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 94-95, pages 201-233.
  15. Deardorff, Alan V, 1982. "The General Validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 683-94, September.
  16. Deardorff, Alan V., 1979. "Weak links in the chain of comparative advantage," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 197-209, May.
  17. Mussa, Michael, 1979. "The two-sector model in terms of its dual : A geometric exposition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 513-526, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Joseph Francois & Hugo Rojas-Romagosa, 2007. "Equity and Trade Policy," IIDE Discussion Papers 20070501, Institue for International and Development Economics.
  2. Hugo Rojas-Romagosa & J.F. Francois, 2008. "Reassessing the relationship between inequality and development," CPB Discussion Paper 107, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  3. Joseph Francis Francois & Hugo ROJAS-ROMAGOSA, 2008. "Equity and International Trade," Economics working papers 2008-14, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.

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