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Distance and FDI When Contracts are Incomplete

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  • Ottaviano, Gianmarco Ireo Paolo
  • Turrini, Alessandro Antonio

Abstract

We introduce incomplete outsourcing contracts in an otherwise standard model of MNEs based on the trade-off between proximity and concentration. This has implications for the choice between export and FDI and the way this is affected by the distance between source and host countries. In particular, incomplete outsourcing contracts can account for the observed emergence of FDIs in large markets not only when trade costs are large but also when trade costs are small. Moreover, contractual incompleteness alters someway dramatically the choice of supply mode made when contracts are complete.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 4041.

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Date of creation: Sep 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:4041

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Keywords: foreign direct investment; incomplete contracts; trade costs;

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References

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  1. Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 2002. "Outsourcing in a Global Economy," Papers 218, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
  2. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2003. "Outsourcing Versus FDI in Industry Equilibrium," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 317-327, 04/05.
  3. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Multinational Firms: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 71-98 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 1999. "Discriminating Among Alternative Theories of the Multinational Enterprise," NBER Working Papers 7164, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. David Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Staff Reports 72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  6. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 693-708, June.
  7. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "General-Equilibrium Approaches to the Multinational Firm: A Review of Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Shatz, Howard J. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The geography of international investment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2338, The World Bank.
  9. Howard J. Shatz, 2004. "US multinational affiliate exports from developing countries," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(3), pages 323-344, June.
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  12. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2002. "Integration Versus Outsourcing In Industry Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 85-120, February.
  13. Wheeler, David & Mody, Ashoka, 1992. "International investment location decisions : The case of U.S. firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 57-76, August.
  14. Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr. & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2001. "Expansion Strategies of U.S. Multinational Firms," NBER Working Papers 8433, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Horstmann, Ignatius J & Markusen, James R, 1987. "Strategic Investments and the Development of Multinationals," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(1), pages 109-21, February.
  16. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Valeria Gattai, 2006. "From the Theory of the Firm to FDI and Internalisation: A Survey," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 65(2), pages 225-262, November.
  2. Marin, Dalia & Thierry, Verdier, 2007. "Power in the Multinational Corporation in Industry Equilibrium," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 209, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  3. Valeria Gattai, 2013. "International outsourcing versus FDI under contractual incompleteness," International Review of Economics, Springer, vol. 60(2), pages 157-186, June.
  4. Marcella Nicolini, 2007. "Institutions and Offshoring Decision," CESifo Working Paper Series 2074, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Arti Grover, 2005. "Outsourcing Versus Foreign Direct Investment--A Welfare Analysis," Working papers 140, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  6. Valeria Gattai & Corrado Molteni, 2007. "Dissipation of Knowledge and the Boundaries of the Multinational Enterprise," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 143(1), pages 1-26, April.
  7. Arti Grover, 2010. "Outsourcing Versus Foreign Direct Investment: A Welfare Analysis," Working Papers id:3010, eSocialSciences.

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