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Equality of educational opportunity employing PISA data: taking both achievement and access into account

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  • Márcia de Carvalho

    ()

  • Luis Fernando Gamboa

    ()

  • Fábio D. Waltenberg

    ()

Abstract

Abstract: While PISA datasets have been used for measuring inequality of educational opportunity they have important limitations: (i) samples only cover a relatively limited fraction of developing countries´ cohorts of 15-year-olds, and (ii) such fractions are not uniform across countries and waves. This casts doubts on the reliability of such measures when used for international and intertemporal comparisons: a milder calculated inequality of opportunity in a given country at a given moment might simply be the artifact of a more restricted and homogeneous sample. Previous attempts of addressing this problem have focused on explicitly reconstructing full samples. Here an alternative path is followed, relying on bidimensional indices, in which equality of opportunity in achievement is the first dimension and equality of opportunity for access to the exam is the second one. We compute the two dimensions and aggregate them using alternative techniques. Employing PISA 2006/2009 data for six Latin-American countries we observe rank reversals when comparing results based upon our indices and those based upon conventional indices of equality of opportunity for achievement. We then generalize our approach allowing for more dimensions and parameterizing the dimensions´ weights.Resumen: La medición de la desigualdad de oportunidades con las bases de PISA implican varias limitaciones: (i) la muestra sólo representa una fracción limitada de las cohortes de jóvenes de 15 años en los países en desarrollo y (ii) estas fracciones no son uniformes entre países ni entre periodos. Lo anterior genera dudas sobe la confiabilidad de estas mediciones cuando se usan para comparaciones internacionales: mayor equidad puede ser resultado de una muestra más restringida y más homogénea. A diferencia de enfoques previos basados en reconstrucción de las muestras, el enfoque del documento consiste en proveer un índice bidimensional que incluye logro y acceso como dimensiones del índice. Se utilizan varios métodos de agregación y se observan cambios considerables en los rankings de (in) equidad de oportunidades cuando solo se observa el logro y cuando se observan ambas dimensiones en las pruebas de PISA 2006/2009. Finalmente se propone una generalización del enfoque permitiendo otras dimensiones adicionales y otros pesos utilizados en la agregación

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO in its series DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO with number 010239.

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Length: 25
Date of creation: 26 Nov 2012
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Handle: RePEc:col:000092:010239

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Keywords: equality of opportunity; measurement of inequality of opportunity; multidimensional measures; PISA test scores; Latin America;

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  1. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jérémie, 2011. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," IZA Discussion Papers 6161, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Dinardo, J. & Fortin, N.M. & Lemieux, T., 1994. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: a Semiparametric Approach," Cahiers de recherche, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques 9406, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  3. Luis Fernando Gamboa & Fábio D. Waltenberg, 2011. "Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009," Working Papers 206, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  4. Dunnzlaff, Lina & Neumann, Dirk & Niehues, Judith & Peichl, Andreas, 2010. "Equality of Opportunity and Redistribution in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 5375, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement of Educational Inequality: Achievement and Opportunity," PSE - Labex "OSE-Ouvrir la Science Economique", HAL halshs-00646594, HAL.
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