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On Correlation Effects and Default Clustering in Credit Models

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  • Antje Berndt
  • Peter Ritchken
  • Zhiqiang Sun
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    Abstract

    We establish Markovian models in the Heath, Jarrow and Morton paradigm where the credit spreads curves of multiple firms and the term structure of interest rates can be represented analytically at any point in time in terms of a finite number of state variables. The models make no restrictions on the correlation structure between interest rates and credit spreads. In addition to diffusive and jump-induced default correlations, default events can impact credit spreads of surviving firms. This feature allows a greater clustering of defaults. Numerical implementations highlight the importance of taking interest rate-credit spread correlations, credit-spread impact factors and the full credit spread curve information into account when building a unified model framework that prices any credit derivative.

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    File URL: https://student-3k.tepper.cmu.edu/gsiadoc/wp/2008-E36.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business in its series GSIA Working Papers with number 2008-E36.

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    Handle: RePEc:cmu:gsiawp:1217885373

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    Postal: Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
    Web page: http://www.tepper.cmu.edu/

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    Web: http://student-3k.tepper.cmu.edu/gsiadoc/GSIA_WP.asp

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    1. Vasicek, Oldrich, 1977. "An equilibrium characterization of the term structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 177-188, November.
    2. Björk, Tomas & Christensen, Bent Jesper, 1997. "Interest Rate Dynamics and Consistent Forward Rate Curves," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 209, Stockholm School of Economics.
    3. Fan Yu, 2007. "Correlated Defaults In Intensity-Based Models," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 155-173.
    4. Duffee, Gregory R, 1999. "Estimating the Price of Default Risk," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(1), pages 197-226.
    5. M. Davis & V. Lo, 2001. "Infectious defaults," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(4), pages 382-387.
    6. Robert A. Jarrow, 2001. "Counterparty Risk and the Pricing of Defaultable Securities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(5), pages 1765-1799, October.
    7. Merton, Robert C., 1973. "On the pricing of corporate debt: the risk structure of interest rates," Working papers 684-73., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    8. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan & Pennacchi, George G, 1996. "The Behavior of Interest Rates Implied by the Term Structure of Eurodollar Futures," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 426-46, August.
    9. Rong Fan & Anurag Gupta & Peter Ritchken, 2003. "Hedging in the Possible Presence of Unspanned Stochastic Volatility: Evidence from Swaption Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 2219-2248, October.
    10. Bliss, Robert R & Ritchken, Peter, 1996. "Empirical Tests of Two State-Variable Heath-Jarrow-Morton Models," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 452-76, August.
    11. Jorion, Philippe & Zhang, Gaiyan, 2007. "Good and bad credit contagion: Evidence from credit default swaps," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 860-883, June.
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    14. Tomas Björk & Lars Svensson, 2001. "On the Existence of Finite-Dimensional Realizations for Nonlinear Forward Rate Models," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(2), pages 205-243.
    15. Vasicek, Oldrich Alfonso, 1977. "Abstract: An Equilibrium Characterization of the Term Structure," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(04), pages 627-627, November.
    16. Inui, Koji & Kijima, Masaaki, 1998. "A Markovian Framework in Multi-Factor Heath-Jarrow-Morton Models," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(03), pages 423-440, September.
    17. Ram Bhar & Carl Chiarella, 1995. "Transformation of Heath-Jarrow-Morton Models to Markovian Systems," Working Paper Series 53, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    18. Joost Driessen, 2005. "Is Default Event Risk Priced in Corporate Bonds?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(1), pages 165-195.
    19. Jarrow, Robert A & Lando, David & Turnbull, Stuart M, 1997. "A Markov Model for the Term Structure of Credit Risk Spreads," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(2), pages 481-523.
    20. Heath, David & Jarrow, Robert & Morton, Andrew, 1992. "Bond Pricing and the Term Structure of Interest Rates: A New Methodology for Contingent Claims Valuation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 77-105, January.
    21. P. Collin-Dufresne & R. Goldstein & J. Hugonnier, 2004. "A General Formula for Valuing Defaultable Securities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1377-1407, 09.
    22. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1995. " A Simple Approach to Valuing Risky Fixed and Floating Rate Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 789-819, July.
    23. Carl Chiarella & Oh-Kang Kwon, 1999. "Classes of Interest Rate Models Under the HJM Framework," Research Paper Series 13, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    24. Björk, Tomas & Svensson, Lars, 1999. "On the Existence of Finite Dimensional Realizations for Nonlinear Forward Rate Models," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 338, Stockholm School of Economics.
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