Japan's Deflation and the Bank of Japan's Experience with Non-traditional Monetary Policy
AbstractThis paper offers a brief summary of non-traditional monetary policy measures adopted by the Bank of Japan (BOJ) during the last two decades, especially the period between 1998-2006, when the so-called Zero Interest Rate Policy (ZIRP) and Quantitative Easing (QE) were put in place. The paper begins with a typology of policies usable at low interest and inflation rates. They are: strategy (i), management of expectations about future policy rates; strategy (ii), targeted asset purchases; and strategy (iii), QE. Alternatively, QE may be decomposed into a pure attempt to inflate the central bank balance sheet, QE0, purchases of assets in dysfunctional markets, QE1 and purchases of assets to generate portfolio rebalancing, QE2. Strategy (ii), when non-sterilized, is either QE1 or QE2. Using this typology, I review the measures adopted by the BOJ and discuss evidence on the effectiveness of the measures. The broad conclusion is that strategies (i) and (ii) have affected interest rates, while no clear evidence exists so far of the effectiveness of strategy (iii), or QE0. Strategy (ii) has been effective especially in containing risk/liquidity premiums in dysfunctional money markets; that is, QE1 has been effective. The effectiveness of QE2, however, is unclear. The strategies, however, have failed to bring the economy out of the deflation trap so far. I discuss some possible reasons for this and also implications for the current U.S. situation.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo in its series CARF F-Series with number CARF-F-235.
Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2010
Date of revision: Oct 2011
Other versions of this item:
- Kazuo Ueda, 2012. "Japan's Deflation and the Bank of Japan's Experience with Nontraditional Monetary Policy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44, pages 175-190, 02.
- Kazuo Ueda, 2010. "Japan's Deflation and the Bank of Japan's Experience with Non-traditional Monetary Policy," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-775, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
- NEP-ALL-2010-11-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBA-2010-11-06 (Central Banking)
- NEP-MAC-2010-11-06 (Macroeconomics)
- NEP-MON-2010-11-06 (Monetary Economics)
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- Ben S. Bernanke & Vincent R. Reinhart, 2004. "Conducting Monetary Policy at Very Low Short-Term Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 85-90, May.
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- Kazuo Ueda, 2012. "Deleveraging and Monetary Policy: Japan since the 1990s and the United States since 2007," CARF F-Series CARF-F-283, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
- Kazuo Ueda, 2011. "Deleveraging and Monetary Policy: Japan since the 1990s and the United States since 2007," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-828, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
- Heike Schenkelberg & Sebastian Watzka, 2011.
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CESifo Working Paper Series
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