Top Incomes in Indonesia, 1920-2004
AbstractUsing taxation and household survey data, this paper estimates top income shares for Indonesia during 1920-2004. Our results suggest that top income shares grew during the 1920s and 1930s, but fell in the post-war era. In more recent decades, we observe a sharp rise in top income shares during the late-1990s, coincident with the economic downturn, and some evidence that top income shares fell in the early-2000s. For pre-war Indonesia, we decompose top income shares by income source, and find that for groups below the top 0.5 percent, a majority of income was derived from wages. Throughout the twentieth century, top income shares in Indonesia have been higher than in India, broadly comparable to Japan, and somewhat lower than levels prevailing in the United States.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 549.
Date of creation: Mar 2007
Date of revision:
inequality; top incomes; personal income taxation; Indonesia;
Other versions of this item:
- Leigh, Andrew & van der Eng, Pierre, 2009. "Inequality in Indonesia: What can we learn from top incomes?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-2), pages 209-212, February.
- H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
- N35 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Asia including Middle East
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-03-31 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2007-03-31 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-DEV-2007-03-31 (Development)
- NEP-HIS-2007-03-31 (Business, Economic & Financial History)
- NEP-PBE-2007-03-31 (Public Economics)
- NEP-SEA-2007-03-31 (South East Asia)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Davies, James B. & Sandstrom, Susanna & Shorrocks, Anthony & Wolff, Edward N., 2008.
"The World Distribution of Household Wealth,"
Working Paper Series
DP2008/03, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- DAVIES, JAMES B & Shorrocks, Anthony & Sandstrom, Susanna & WOLFF, EDWARD N, 2007. "The World Distribution of Household Wealth," Center for Global, International and Regional Studies, Working Paper Series qt3jv048hx, Center for Global, International and Regional Studies, UC Santa Cruz.
- James B. Davies & Anthony Shorrocks & Edward N. Wolff, 2010. "The World Distribution of Household Wealth," Working Papers id:3217, eSocialSciences.
- C. Peter Timmer, 2004.
"The road to pro-poor growth: the Indonesian experience in regional perspective,"
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(2), pages 177-207.
- Peter Timmer, 2004. "The Road to Pro-Poor Growth: The Indonesian Experience in Regional Perspective," Working Papers 38, Center for Global Development.
- Michael D. Bordo & Alan M. Taylor & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Globalization in Historical Perspective," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bord03-1.
- Anthony B. Atkinson & Wiemer Salverda, 2005. "Top Incomes In The Netherlands And The United Kingdom Over The 20th Century," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(4), pages 883-913, 06.
- Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2003. "Income Inequality In The United States, 1913-1998," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(1), pages 1-39, February.
- Ragayah Haji Mat Zin, 2005. "Income Distribution in East Asian Developing Countries: recent trends," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 19, pages 36-54, November.
- Facundo Alvaredo, 2007. "The Rich in Argentina over the twentieth century: From the Conservative Republic to the Peronist experience and beyond 1932-2004," PSE Working Papers halshs-00588318, HAL.
- Michael D. Bordo & Alan M. Taylor & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Introduction to "Globalization in Historical Perspective"," NBER Chapters, in: Globalization in Historical Perspective, pages 1-10 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anthony B. Atkinson & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2011.
"Top Incomes in the Long Run of History,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-71, March.
- repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00588318 is not listed on IDEAS
- Sambit Bhattacharyya & Budy P. Resosudarmo, 2013.
"Growth, Growth Accelerations and the Poor: Lessons from Indonesia,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
2013-14, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Sambit Bhattacharyya & Budy R. Resosudarmo, 2013. "Growth, Growth Accelerations and the Poor: Lessons from Indonesia," Departmental Working Papers 2013-15, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
- Andy Sumner & Peter Edward, 2013. "From Low Income, High Poverty to High-Income, No Poverty? An Optimistic View of the Long-Run Evolution of Poverty in Indonesia By International Poverty Lines, 1984–2030," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201310, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Jun 2013.
- Brzezinski, Michal, 2013.
"Asymptotic and bootstrap inference for top income shares,"
Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 10-13.
- Michał Brzeziński, 2013. "Asymptotic and bootstrap inference for top income shares," Working Papers 2013-01, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
- Michał Brzeziński, 2013. "Variance estimation for richness measures," Working Papers 2013-03, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
- Andy Sumner, 2013. "The Evolution Of Education And Health Poverty During Economic Development:The Case Of Indonesia, 1991–2007," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201311, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised May 2013.
- repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00586795 is not listed on IDEAS
- Salvatore Morelli & Timothy Smeeding & Jeffrey Thompson, 2014. "Post-1970 Trends in Within-Country Inequality and Poverty: Rich and Middle Income Countries," CSEF Working Papers 356, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
- Fiorio, Carlo V & Saget, Catherine, 2010. "Reducing or aggravating inequality? : Preliminary findings from the 2008 financial crisis," ILO Working Papers 456487, International Labour Organization.
- Andrew Leigh, 2007.
"How Closely Do Top Income Shares Track Other Measures of Inequality?,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(524), pages F619-F633, November.
- Andrew Leigh, 2007. "How Closely Do Top Income Shares Track Other Measures of Inequality?," CEPR Discussion Papers 562, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Jörg Baten & Mojgan Stegl & Pierre Eng, 2013. "The biological standard of living and body height in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia, 1770–2000," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 103-122, July.
- Lakner, Christoph & Milanovic, Branko, 2013. "Global income distribution : from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the great recession," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6719, The World Bank.
- Foldvari, Peter & van Leeuwen, Bas & Marks, Daan & Gall, Jozsef, 2013. "Indonesian regional welfare development, 1900–1990: New anthropometric evidence," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 78-89.
- Alvaredo, Facundo, 2009. "Top incomes and earnings in Portugal 1936-2005," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 404-417, October.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.