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U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems

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  • Greene, Catherine R.

Abstract

Farmers have been developing organic farming systems in the United States for decades. State and private institutions also began emerging during this period to set organic farming standards and provide third-party verification of label claims, and legislation requiring national standards was passed in the 1990s. More U.S. producers are considering organic farming systems in order to lower input costs, conserve nonrenewable resources, capture high-value markets, and boost farm income. Organic farming systems rely on practices such as cultural and biological pest management, and virtually prohibit synthetic chemicals in crop production and antibiotics or hormones in livestock production. This report updates U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates of land farmed with organic practices during 1992-94 with 1997 estimates, and provides new State- and crop-level detail.

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File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33777
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service in its series Agricultural Information Bulletins with number 33777.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:ags:uersab:33777

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Keywords: organic farming systems; organic certification; certified organic acreage and livestock; price premiums; nation organic rules; speciality agriculture; high-value crops; farmers' markets; Farm Management;

References

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  1. Welsh, Rick, 1999. "The Economics of Organic Grain and Soybean Production in the Midwestern United States," Policy Studies Program Reports, Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture, number 134120.
  2. Lohr, Luanne & Semali, Adelin, 2000. "Reconciling Attitudes And Behavior In Organic Food Retailing," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21855, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  3. Govindasamy, Ramu & Italia, John, 1997. "Consumer Response to Integrated Pest Management and Organic Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis," P Series 36727, Rutgers University, Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics.
  4. Glaser, Lewrene K. & Thompson, Gary D., 2000. "Demand For Organic And Conventional Beverage Milk," 2000 Annual Meeting, June 29-July 1, 2000, Vancouver, British Columbia 36346, Western Agricultural Economics Association.
  5. Dobbs, Thomas L., 1998. "Price Premiums for Organic Crops," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 13(2).
  6. Nimon, R. Wesley & Beghin, John C., 1998. "Are Eco-Labels Valuable? Evidence From The Apparel Industry," 1998 Annual meeting, August 2-5, Salt Lake City, UT 21016, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  7. Lohr, Luanne & Salomonsson, Lennart, 2000. "Conversion subsidies for organic production: results from Sweden and lessons for the United States," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 133-146, March.
  8. Robert D. Weaver & David J. Evans & A. E. Luloff, 1992. "Pesticide use in tomato production: Consumer concerns and willingness-to-pay," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(2), pages 131-142.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Park, Timothy A. & Lohr, Luanne, 2003. "Organic Pest Management Decisions: A Systems Approach," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22070, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  2. Ribaudo, Marc & Hansen, LeRoy T. & Hellerstein, Daniel & Greene, Catherine R., 2008. "The Use of Markets To Increase Private Investment in Environmental Stewardship," Economic Research Report 56473, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  3. Lohr, Luanne & Park, Timothy A., 2002. "Promoting Sustainable Insect Management Strategies: Learning From Organic Farmers," Faculty Series 16650, University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
  4. B. Deaton & John Hoehn, 2005. "The social construction of production externalities in contemporary agriculture: Process versus product standards as the basis for defining “organic”," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 31-38, 03.
  5. John Cranfield & Spencer Henson & James Holliday, 2010. "The motives, benefits, and problems of conversion to organic production," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 291-306, September.
  6. Klonsky, Karen & Greene, Catherine R., 2005. "Widespread Adoption of Organic Agriculture in the US: Are Market-Driven Policies Enough?," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19382, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  7. Lohr, Luanne & Park, Timothy A., 2002. "Improving Extension Effectiveness For Organic Clients: Current Status And Future Directions," Faculty Series 16666, University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
  8. MacInnis, Bo, 2004. "Transaction Costs And Organic Marketing: Evidence From U.S. Organic Produce Farmers," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20386, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  9. Hoehn, John P. & Deaton, Brady J., Jr., 2003. "Information As A Double-Edged Sword: The Economic And Welfare Consequences Of Certified Labeling For Credence Attributes," Staff Papers 11762, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  10. Kuminoff, Nicolai V. & Wossink, Ada, 2005. "Valuing the Option to Convert from Conventional to Organic Farming," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19531, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  11. Evans, Jason R. & D'Souza, Gerard E. & Sperow, Mark & Rayburn, Edward B., 2004. "An Economic Analysis Of Pasture-Raised Beef Systems In Appalachia," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20268, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  12. Mrill Ingram, 2002. "Producing the natural fiber naturally: Technological change and the US organic cotton industry," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 325-336, December.
  13. Wossink, Ada & Kuminoff, Nicolai V., 2005. "Valuing the Option to Switch to Organic Farming: An Application to U.S. Corn and Soybeans," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24716, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  14. Hoehn, John P. & Deaton, Brady J., Jr., 2004. "The Welfare Consequences Of Certified Labeling For Credence Attributes," Staff Papers 11758, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  15. Lohr, Luanne, 2001. "The Importance Of The Conservation Security Act To Us Competitiveness In Global Organic Markets," Faculty Series 16706, University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics.

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