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Interaction between public research organizations and industry in biotechnology

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Author Info

  • Masao Nakamura

    (Faculty of Commerce, Institute of Asian Research and Faculty of Applied Science, University of British Columbia, 2053 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6 T 1Z2)

  • Robert Dalpé

    (Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada)

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    Abstract

    This paper summarizes the most important findings of the literature on the close interaction between public research organizations and industry in biotechnology. The first question deals with why researchers in academic organizations were and are still important players in the biotechnology industry. Three arguments explain why biotechnology emerged as an organization network: its origins in academic research, the impact of participation in networks on competitiveness and the weight of these networks on R&D intensity and innovation. The second focuses on the factors that explain the regional concentration of such interactions and of biotechnology firms. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy implications. The dynamic of biotechnology is rather unique and can be attributed to the specific institutional arrangements characterizing the American scientific system. Its replication to other sectors or countries seems rather difficult. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/mde.1082
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Managerial and Decision Economics.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2003)
    Issue (Month): 2-3 ()
    Pages: 171-185

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    Handle: RePEc:wly:mgtdec:v:24:y:2003:i:2-3:p:171-185

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    Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/7976

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    References

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    1. Zucker, Lynne G. & Darby, Michael R., 1997. "Present at the biotechnological revolution: transformation of technological identity for a large incumbent pharmaceutical firm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 429-446, December.
    2. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
    3. Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1994. "Evaluating technological information and utilizing it : Scientific knowledge, technological capability, and external linkages in biotechnology," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 91-114, June.
    4. Granovetter, Mark, 1995. "Coase Revisited: Business Groups in the Modern Economy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 93-130.
    5. Argyres, Nicholas S. & Liebeskind, Julia Porter, 1998. "Privatizing the intellectual commons: Universities and the commercialization of biotechnology," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 427-454, May.
    6. McMillan, G. Steven & Narin, Francis & Deeds, David L., 2000. "An analysis of the critical role of public science in innovation: the case of biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 1-8, January.
    7. Edward Feser & Edward Bergman, 2000. "National Industry Cluster Templates: A Framework for Applied Regional Cluster Analysis," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 1-19.
    8. Kogut, Bruce, 1989. "The Stability of Joint Ventures: Reciprocity and Competitive Rivalry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(2), pages 183-98, December.
    9. P Cooke & M G Uranga & G Etxebarria, 1998. "Regional systems of innovation: an evolutionary perspective," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 30(9), pages 1563-1584, September.
    10. Julia Porter Liebeskind & Amalya Lumerman Oliver & Lynne G. Zucker & Marilynn B. Brewer, 1995. "Social Networks, Learning, and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms," NBER Working Papers 5320, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:
    1. Rachel Levy & Pascale Roux & Sandrine Wolff, 2009. "An analysis of science–industry collaborative patterns in a large European University," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 1-23, February.

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