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Evaluating the Maastricht Convergence Criteria for New Prospective European Union Members

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  • Vesile Kutlu
  • Nese Kavrukkoca
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    Abstract

    This paper aims to assess the macroeconomic condition of the four new prospective members, which are Turkey, Croatia, Bulgaria, and Romania, depending on four Maastricht Convergence Criteria in order to determine which candidate is ready to join EMU. We use cointegration approach to analyze cointegrating relations among inflation rates, interest rate, deficit-to-GDP, and debt-to-GDP ratios of four candidates in relation to Germany. Bounds Testing and Engle-Granger Cointegration Approach are applied to all criteria to test convergence. None of the convergence criteria for Turkey and Romania in relation to Germany has been achieved. On the other hand, there is evidence of nominal convergence between Croatia and Germany in terms of deficit-to-GDP ratio and interest rates. Also, there is cointegration between deficit-to-GDP ratio of Bulgaria and that of Germany.

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    File URL: http://www.tcmb.gov.tr/research/cbreview/jan07-2.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in its journal Central Bank Review.

    Volume (Year): 7 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 13-26

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    Handle: RePEc:tcb:cebare:v:7:y:2007:i:1:p:13-26

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    Related research

    Keywords: Convergence; Engle-Granger; Bounds Testing;

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    1. Hafer, R. W. & Kutan, Ali M. & Su Zhou, 1997. "Linkage in EMS term structures: evidence from common trend and transitory components," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 595-607, August.
    2. Tang, Tuck Cheong, 2003. "Japanese aggregate import demand function: reassessment from the 'bounds' testing approach," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 419-436, December.
    3. Karfakis, C. J. & Moschos, D.M., 1990. "Interest Rate Linkages Within the European Monetary System: A Time Series Analysis," Working Papers 144, University of Sydney, School of Economics.
    4. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    5. Kutan, Ali M. & Yigit, Taner M., 2005. "Real and nominal stochastic convergence: Are the new EU members ready to join the Euro zone?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 387-400, June.
    6. Josef Brada, Ali M. Kutan, 2002. "Balkan and Mediterranean Candidates for European Union Membership: The Convergence of Their Monetary Policy with That of the European Central Bank," Eastern European Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 40(4), pages 31-44, July.
    7. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
    8. Brada, Josef C. & Kutan, Ali M., 2001. "The convergence of monetary policy between candidate countries and the European Union," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 215-231, September.
    9. Haug, Alfred A. & MacKinnon, James G. & Michelis, Leo, 2000. "European Monetary Union: a cointegration analysis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 419-432, June.
    10. Dilip Dutta & Nasiruddin Ahmed, 1999. "An aggregate import demand function for Bangladesh: a cointegration approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(4), pages 465-472.
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