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Parenthood Without Penalty: Time Use And Public Policy In Australia And Finland

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  • Michael Bittman
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    Abstract

    Housework and child care continue to be assigned on the basis of gender. Women are significantly disadvantaged by their unequal share of unpaid work. Three remedies for this situation have been advanced: (1) renegotiation of domestic division of labor, (2) substitution of market provision for unpaid labor, and (3) public provision of key services. Using time use and expenditure data from Australia this paper shows that most changes in the domestic division of labor have come from women's, rather than men's, adaptations. Furthermore, much of the change is attributable to increased reliance on market substitutes for women's domestic labor. A comparison of social policy and time use in Australia and Finland shows how entitlement to generous parental leave and public provision of child care can significantly reduce the economic and social penalties faced by mothers.

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    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/135457099337798
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Feminist Economics.

    Volume (Year): 5 (1999)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 27-42

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:femeco:v:5:y:1999:i:3:p:27-42

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    Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/RFEC20

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    Related research

    Keywords: Gender Equity; Family Responsibilities; Domestic Division Of Labor; Social Policy;

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    Cited by:
    1. Joyce P. Jacobsen, 2008. "Accommodating Families," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2008-004, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
    2. Paul Callister, 2005. "The changing gender distribution of paid and unpaid work in New Zealand," Treasury Working Paper Series 05/07, New Zealand Treasury.
    3. Berenice Monna & Anne Gauthier, 2008. "A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 634-653, December.
    4. Lyn Craig, 2006. "Where Do They Find the Time?: An Analysis of How Parents Shift and Squeeze Their Time around Work and Child Care," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_439, Levy Economics Institute.
    5. Daumerie, Béatrice, 2003. "What Future for Europe? New perspectives in post-industrial fertility issues," Arbetsrapport, Institute for Futures Studies 2003:7, Institute for Futures Studies.
    6. Anne H. Gauthier & Timothy M. Smeeding & Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., 2004. "Do We Invest Less Time in Children? Trends in Parental Time in Selected Industrialized Countries Since the 1960's," Center for Policy Research Working Papers, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University 64, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    7. Robert Drago & Rosanna Scutella & Amy Varner, 2002. "Work and Family Directions in the US and Australia: A Policy Research Agenda," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2002n12, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    8. Lyn Craig, 2007. "How Employed Mothers in Australia Find Time for Both Market Work and Childcare," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 69-87, March.
    9. Ragni Hege Kitterød & Jan Lyngstad, 2013. "Comparing mothers’ and fathers’ reports on the non-resident father’s contact with his children," Discussion Papers, Research Department of Statistics Norway 744, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
    10. Maria Gutiérrez-Domènech, 2010. "Parental employment and time with children in Spain," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 371-391, September.

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