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La mesure de la pauvreté : vue d’ensemble et méthodologie avec illustration dans le cas du Ghana

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  • Coulombe, Harold

    (Department of Economics, University of Warwick, Grande-Bretagne)

  • McKay, Andrew

    (Department of Economics, University of Nottingham, Grande-Bretagne)

Abstract

During the 1980s, the majority of developing countries experienced serious macroeconomic shocks, leading them to adopt stabilisation and structural adjustment programs. Following the public debate on the harmful effects of these programs, numerous studies on poverty have been undertaken in the last 15 years using microeconomic datasets, particularly those derived from household surveys. This article presents an overview of the principal concepts used in quantifying poverty, especially in relation to the choice of the standard of living measure for individuals, the determination of the poverty line, and the measure of poverty. Following this presentation of the different analytical tools, they are then applied to a series of Ghanaian household surveys. Durant les années quatre-vingt, la plupart des pays en développement ont connu de graves chocs macroéconomiques qui ont provoqué l’adoption de programmes de stabilisation et d’ajustement structurel. Suite au débat public sur les effets néfastes de ces programmes, les 15 dernières années ont vu naître de nombreuses études sur la pauvreté effectuées à l’aide de banques de données microéconomiques, particulièrement des enquêtes auprès des ménages. Cet article fait un survol des principaux concepts liés à la quantification de la pauvreté, en particulier quant au choix de la mesure de bien-être au niveau des individus, à la détermination du seuil de pauvreté et à la mesure de la pauvreté. Après cette présentation des différents outils d’analyse, ils sont par la suite appliqués à une série d’enquêtes auprès des ménages ghanéens.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 74 (1998)
Issue (Month): 3 (septembre)
Pages: 415-443

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:74:y:1998:i:3:p:415-443

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Web page: http://www.scse.ca/
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  1. Sen, Amartya K, 1976. "Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(2), pages 219-31, March.
  2. Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
  3. Kakwani, Nanak, 1980. "On a Class of Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(2), pages 437-46, March.
  4. Glewwe, P. & Jacoby, H., 1993. "Delayed Primary School Enrollment and Childhood Malnutrition in Ghana, an Economic Analysis," Papers 98, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  5. Villasenor, JoseA. & Arnold, Barry C., 1989. "Elliptical Lorenz curves," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 327-338, February.
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