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The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

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Author Info

  • Anjum Aqeel

    (University of Karachi, Karachi.)

  • Mohammed Nishat

    (Institute of Business Administration, Karachi.)

Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    The paper empirically identifies the determinants of growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan over the period 1961–2003. Our main interest is to study how different variables or indicators reflecting the trade, fiscal, and financial sector liberalisation attract FDI in Pakistan. The study uses the cointegration and error-correction techniques to identify the variables in explaining the FDI in Pakistan. The study considers the tariff rate, exchange rate, tax rate, credit to private sector, and index of general share price variables to see if they may explain the inflow of foreign direct investment. Also included are wages and per capita GDP to test for the relative demand for labour and market size hypotheses. All variables indicate correct signs and are statistically significant except for wage rate and share price index. The study clearly emphasises the role of these policy variables in attracting FDI and determining its growth in both short- and long-run in Pakistan, and also indicates a positive and significant impact of reforms on FDI in Pakistan.

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    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2004/4/PartII/Anjum%20Aqeel.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

    Volume (Year): 43 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 651-664

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    Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:43:y:2004:i:4:p:651-664

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    Related research

    Keywords: Foreign Investment; Pakistan;

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    References

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    1. Froot, Kenneth A & Stein, Jeremy C, 1991. "Exchange Rates and Foreign Direct Investment: An Imperfect Capital Markets Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(4), pages 1191-217, November.
    2. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 693-708, June.
    3. Robert E. Lipsey, 2000. "Interpreting Developed Countries' Foreign Direct Investment," NBER Working Papers 7810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Hines, James R, Jr, 1996. "Altered States: Taxes and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in America," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1076-94, December.
    5. Asiedu, Elizabeth, 2002. "On the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries: Is Africa Different?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 107-119, January.
    6. Zahir Shah & Qazi Masood Ahmed, 2002. "Measurement of Cost of Capital for Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan: A Neoclassical Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 807-823.
    7. David A. Dickey & Dennis W. Jansen & Daniel L. Thornton, 1991. "A primer on cointegration with an application to money and income," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 58-78.
    8. Barrell, Ray & Pain, Nigel, 1996. "An Econometric Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 200-207, May.
    9. James R. Hines, Jr. & Eric M. Rice, 1990. "Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business," NBER Working Papers 3477, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Campa, Joe Manuel, 1993. "Entry by Foreign Firms in the United States under Exchange Rate Uncertainty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 614-22, November.
    11. Lucas, Robert E. B., 1993. "On the determinants of direct foreign investment: Evidence from East and Southeast Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 391-406, March.
    12. Chakrabarti, Avik, 2001. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Sensitivity Analyses of Cross-Country Regressions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 89-113.
    13. Gastanaga, Victor M. & Nugent, Jeffrey B. & Pashamova, Bistra, 1998. "Host Country Reforms and FDI Inflows: How Much Difference do they Make?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1299-1314, July.
    14. James Love & Francisco Lage-Hidalgo, 2000. "Analysing the determinants of US direct investment in Mexico," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(10), pages 1259-1267.
    15. Carlton, Dennis W, 1983. "The Location and Employment Choices of New Firms: An Econometric Model with Discrete and Continuous Endogenous Variables," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 440-49, August.
    16. Alogoskoufis, George & Smith, Ron, 1991. " On Error Correction Models: Specification, Interpretation, Estimation," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 97-128.
    17. Jamuna Agarwal, 1980. "Determinants of foreign direct investment: A survey," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 116(4), pages 739-773, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Do Imports and Foreign Capital Inflows Lead Economic Growth? Cointegration and Causality Analysis in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 29805, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 24 Mar 2011.
    2. Muhammad Shahbaz & Mohammad Mafizur Rahman, 2012. "The Dynamic of Financial Development, Imports, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Analysis in Pakistan," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 13(2), pages 201-219, June.
    3. Aarón Garavito A. & Ana María Iregui B. & María Teresa Ramírez G., 2012. "Determinantes de la inversión extranjera directa en Colombia: Un estudio a nivel de firma," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009672, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    4. Abdul, waheed & Syed tehseen, jawaid, 2010. "Inward foreign direct investment and aggregate imports: time series evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 31270, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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