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Euro Cash in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe

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    Abstract

    A considerable part of the euro banknotes issued since 2002 is in circulation in Central, Eastern and Southeastern European (CESEE) countries. This can be attributed to the fact that numerous economic agents resorted to currency substitution in a parallel safe haven currency during the crisis arising in the course of their countries’ transition to a market economy. On the other hand, euro cash holdings are related to some countries’ upcoming accession to the European Union, which will oblige them to adopt the euro. Although countries have caught up economically, the degree of euroization in CESEE countries has hardly receded over the past years. According to surveys conducted by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB), economically significant amounts of euro cash are primarily held by households in Southeastern Europe, which – unlike households in Central Europe – use euro cash as a store of value and partially as a means of payment in addition to their respective local currency. Policies introduced in CESEE countries to stabilize economies after the outbreak of the financial and economic crisis in 2008 have ultimately increased the public’s confidence in the security of its savings deposits. The recent drop in euro cash holdings can therefore be attributed not only to the depletion of euro cash reserves during the crisis to finance necessary expenditures. It also seems to reflect a medium-term tendency to shift portfolios from (euro) cash to (euro) deposits.

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    File URL: http://www.oenb.at/dms/oenb/Publikationen/Volkswirtschaft/Monetary-Policy-and-the-Economy/2012/Monetary-Policy-and-the-Economy-Q1-12/chapters/mop_2012_q1_in_focus3_tcm16-246787.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank) in its journal Monetary Policy & the Economy.

    Volume (Year): (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 41–55

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    Handle: RePEc:onb:oenbmp:y:2012:i:1:b:3

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    Related research

    Keywords: dollarization; euroization; currency substitution; household finance; transition crisis; survey data;

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    1. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "The Role of Social Capital in Financial Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 526-556, June.
    2. Bartzsch, Nikolaus & Rösl, Gerhard & Seitz, Franz, 2011. "Foreign demand for euro banknotes issued in Germany: Estimation using indirect approaches," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2011,21e, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
    3. Edgar Feige & James Dean, 2002. "Dollarization and Euroization in Transition Countries: Currency Substitution, Asset Substitution, Network Externalities and Irreversibility," International Finance 0205003, EconWPA.
    4. Helmut Stix, 2012. "Why Do People Save in Cash? Distrust, Memories of Banking Crises, Weak Institutions and Dollarization," Working Papers 178, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    5. Helmut Stix, 2004. "Foreign Currency Demand since 2002 - Evidence from Five Central and Eastern European Countries," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 5(4), pages 19-24, December.
    6. Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald & Helmut Stix, 2007. "Are Euro Cash Holdings in Central and Eastern Europe Driven by Experience or Anticipation? Results from an OeNB Survey," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1.
    7. Fabian Valencia & Luc Laeven, 2008. "Systemic Banking Crises," IMF Working Papers 08/224, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Sandra Dvorsky & Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2008. "Euroization in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe – First Results from the New OeNB Euro Survey," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1.
    9. Edgar L Feige, 2003. "Dynamics of Currency Substitution, Asset Substitution and De facto Dollarisation and Euroisation in Transition Countries," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(3), pages 358-383, September.
    10. Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2009. "Euroization in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe – New Evidence On Its Extent and Some Evidence On Its Causes," Working Papers 159, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    11. Evan Kraft, 2003. "Monetary Policy under Dollarisation: The Case of Croatia," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(3), pages 256-277, September.
    12. Sandra Dvorsky & Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2010. "Real Effects of Crisis Have Reached CESEE Households: Euro Survey Shows Dampened Savings and Changes in Borrowing Behavior," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2.
    13. Helmut Stix, 2008. "Euroization: What Factors drive its Persistence?," Working Papers 140, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
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