Dopamine and risk choices in different domains: Findings among serious tournament bridge players
AbstractIndividuals differ significantly in their willingness to take risks, partly due to genetic differences. We explore how risk taking behavior correlates with different versions of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). We focus on risk taking in the card game contract bridge, and economic risk taking as proxied by a financial gamble. We also explore self-reported general risk taking, and self-reported behavior in risk-related activities. Our participants are serious tournament bridge players, which gives them substantial experience in risk taking. We find some evidence that men with a 7-repeat allele (7R+) of DRD4 take more overall risk in bridge than individuals without this allele (7R-), and strong evidence that 7R+ men take more economic risk in an investment game. Interestingly, these relationships are not found in the women in our study. Although the number of 7R+ women in our sample is low, our results may reflect a gender difference in how the 7R+ genotype affects behavior. Bridge masterpoints measure past success, thus reflecting playing skill and experience. We show that masterpoint level modulates the effect of the DRD4 gene in men in a highly important manner. We find that higher ranked 7R+ men take significantly more good risks and significantly fewer bad risks than other men, whereas the opposite is found for less-expert 7R+ men. This is the first study to distinguish between advantageous and disadvantageous risk taking. We identify a strong interaction among desirable risk taking behavior, measured success, and genetic variation. Considering other risk measures, we find no difference between 7R+ and 7R- individuals in general risk taking or in any of a number of other risk-related activities. Our results indicate that the dopamine system plays an important role in explaining individual differences in risk taking in bridge and economic risk taking among men. Little relationship is found in other activities involving risk or among women.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Risk and Uncertainty.
Volume (Year): 43 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (August)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100299
Risk preferences; Dopamine; Risk-taking; Contract bridge; Advantageous risks; DRD4 ; C91; C93; D03; D81; D87; G0;
Other versions of this item:
- Zeckhauser, Richard Jay & Rand, David Gertler & Wernerfelt, Nils Christian & Garcia, Justin & Lum, Koji & Dreber-Almenberg, Anna, 2010. "Dopamine and Risk Choices in Different Domains: Findings Among Series Tournament Bridge Players," Scholarly Articles 4405460, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
- Dreber, Anna & Rand, David G. & Wernerfelt, Nils & Garcia, Justin R. & Lum, J. Koji & Zeckhauser, Richard, 2010. "Dopamine and Risk Choices in Different Domains: Findings among Serious Tournament Bridge Players," Working Paper Series rwp10-034, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
- C93 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Field Experiments
- D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Economics; Underlying Principles
- D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
- D87 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Neuroeconomics
- F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gary Charness & Uri Gneezy, 2010.
"Portfolio Choice And Risk Attitudes: An Experiment,"
Western Economic Association International, vol. 48(1), pages 133-146, 01.
- Charness, Gary & Gneezy, Uri, 2003. "Portfolio Choice and Risk Attitudes: An Experiment," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt7vz7w609, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
- Jeffrey Carpenter & Justin Garcia & J. Lum, 2011. "Dopamine receptor genes predict risk preferences, time preferences, and related economic choices," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 233-261, June.
- Kuhnen, Camelia M. & Chiao, Joan Y., 2008. "Genetic Determinants of Financial Risk Taking," MPRA Paper 10895, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Gneezy, U. & Potters, J.J.M., 1997.
"An experiment on risk taking and evaluation periods,"
Open Access publications from Tilburg University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-73908, Tilburg University.
- Gneezy, Uri & Potters, Jan, 1997. "An Experiment on Risk Taking and Evaluation Periods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(2), pages 631-45, May.
- Gneezy, U. & Potters, J.J.M., 1996. "An experiment on risk taking and evaluation periods," Discussion Paper 1996-61, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Luigi Guiso & Monica Paiella, 2005.
"The Role Of Risk Aversion In Predicting Individual Behavior,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
546, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Monica Paiella & Luigi Guiso, 2004. "The Role of Risk Aversion in Predicting Individual Behaviour," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 222, Econometric Society.
- Guiso, Luigi & Paiella, Monica, 2004. "The Role of Risk Aversion in Predicting Individual Behaviours," CEPR Discussion Papers 4591, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Barsky, Robert B, et al, 1997. "Preference Parameters and Behavioral Heterogeneity: An Experimental Approach in the Health and Retirement Study," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(2), pages 537-79, May.
- Lisa Anderson & Jennifer Mellor, 2009.
"Are risk preferences stable? Comparing an experimental measure with a validated survey-based measure,"
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty,
Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 137-160, October.
- Lisa R. Anderson & Jennifer M. Mellor, 2008. "Are Risk Preferences Stable? Comparing an Experimental Measure with a Validated Survey-Based Measure," Working Papers 74, Department of Economics, College of William and Mary.
- Dolly Chugh & Max Bazerman, 2007. "Bounded awareness: what you fail to see can hurt you," Mind and Society: Cognitive Studies in Economics and Social Sciences, Fondazione Rosselli, vol. 6(1), pages 1-18, June.
- Laurent E. Calvet & Paolo Sodini, 2010. "Twin Picks: Disentangling the Determinants of Risk-Taking in Household Portfolios," NBER Working Papers 15859, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Cesarini & Christopher T. Dawes & Magnus Johannesson & Paul Lichtenstein & Björn Wallace, 2009.
"Genetic Variation in Preferences for Giving and Risk Taking,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 124(2), pages 809-842, May.
- David, Cesarini & Dawes, Christopher T. & Johannesson, Magnus & Lichtenstein, Paul & Wallace, Björn, 2007. "Genetic Variation in Preferences for Giving and Risk-Taking," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 679, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 12 Jan 2009.
- Barnea, Amir & Cronqvist, Henrik & Siegel, Stephan, 2010.
"Nature or Nurture: What Determines Investor Behavior?,"
SIFR Research Report Series
72, Institute for Financial Research.
- Barnea, Amir & Cronqvist, Henrik & Siegel, Stephan, 2010. "Nature or nurture: What determines investor behavior?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 583-604, December.
- Johnson, Eric J, et al, 1993. " Framing, Probability Distortions, and Insurance Decisions," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 35-51, August.
- Donkers, Bas & Melenberg, Bertrand & Van Soest, Arthur, 2001.
" Estimating Risk Attitudes Using Lotteries: A Large Sample Approach,"
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty,
Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 165-95, March.
- Donkers, A.C.D. & Melenberg, B. & Soest, A.H.O. van, 1999. "Estimating Risk Attitudes Using Lotteries; A Large Sample Approach," Discussion Paper 1999-12, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
- Ariel Knafo & Salomon Israel & Ariel Darvasi & Rachel Bachner-Melman & Florina Uzefovsky & Lior Cohen & Esti Feldman & Elad Lerer & Efrat Laiba & Yael Raz & Lubov Nemanov & Inga Gritsenko & Christian , 2007. "Individual Differences in Allocation of Funds in the Dictator Game Associated with Length of the Arginine Vasopressin 1a Receptor (AVPR1a) RS3 Promoter-region and Correlation between RS3 Length and Hi," Discussion Paper Series dp457, The Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
- Hogarth, Robin M & Kunreuther, Howard, 1995. "Decision Making under Ignorance: Arguing with Yourself," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 15-36, January.
- Vanessa Mertins & Andrea B. Schote & Jobst Meyer, 2013. "Variants of the Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) Predict Free-riding Behavior in Women in a Strategic Public Goods Experiment," IAAEU Discussion Papers 201302, Institute of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU).
- Dreber, Anna & Rand, David G. & Wernerfelt, Nils & Garcia, Justin R. & Lum, J. Koji & Zeckhauser, Richard, 2011.
"The Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene (DRD4) and Self-Reported Risk Taking in the Economic Domain,"
Working Paper Series
rwp11-042, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Dreber, Anna & Rand, David Gertler & Wernerfelt, Nils Christian & Garcia, Justin & Lum, J. Koji & Zeckhauser, Richard Jay, 2011. "The Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene (DRD4) and Self-Reported Risk Taking in the Economic Domain," Scholarly Articles 5347066, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.