Three keys to the city: resources, agglomeration economies, and sorting
AbstractMetropolitan areas in the U.S. contain almost 80 percent of the nation’s population and nearly 85 percent of its jobs. This high degree of spatial concentration of people and jobs leads to congestion costs and higher housing costs. To offset these costs, workers must receive higher wages, and higher wages increase firms’ costs. So why do firms continue to produce in cities where the cost of doing business is so high? Economists offer three main explanations. First, cities developed and grew because of some natural advantage, such as a port. Second, as cities grew, the resulting concentration of people and jobs led to efficiency gains and cost savings for firms, creating agglomeration economies. Finally, the presence of a talented and flexible labor force made it feasible for entrepreneurs to start new businesses. This third reason for the growth of cities is called sorting. In “Three Keys to the City: Resources, Agglomeration Economies, and Sorting,” (351 KB, 13 pages) Jerry Carlino looks at recent developments in measuring each of the sources of city productivity and discusses the policy implications of this research
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia in its journal Business Review.
Volume (Year): (2011)
Issue (Month): Q3 ()
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Toni Whited & Jonas Fisher & Morris Davis, 2013.
"Macroeconomic Implications of Agglomeration,"
2013 Meeting Papers
893, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Toni M. Whited & Jonas D.M. Fisher & Morris A. Davis, 2010. "Macroeconomic Implications of Agglomeration," 2010 Meeting Papers 1330, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Morris A. Davis & Jonas D. M. Fisher & Toni M. Whited, 2010. "Macroeconomic implications of agglomeration," Working Paper Series WP-2010-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Satyajit Chatterjee, 2003. "Agglomeration economies: the spark that ignites a city?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Q4, pages 6-13.
- Jeffrey Lin, 2009.
"Technological adaptation, cities and new work,"
09-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Jeffrey Lin, 2007.
"Thick-market effects and churning in the labor market: evidence from U.S. cities,"
07-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Bleakley, Hoyt & Lin, Jeffrey, 2012. "Thick-market effects and churning in the labor market: Evidence from US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 87-103.
- Nathaniel Baum-Snow, 2007. "Did Highways Cause Suburbanization?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(2), pages 775-805, 05.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Beth Paul).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.