Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: A comprehensive review
AbstractSteep hikes of petroleum prices and rising demand of petroleum products compels the scientific society to think for the renewable alternative fuels like biodiesel. Biodiesel production is generally carried out through the process of transesterification reaction. The reaction is facilitated with a suitable catalyst either homogeneous or heterogeneous. The selection of appropriate catalyst depends on the amount of free fatty acids in the oil. Heterogeneous catalyst provides high activity, high selectivity, high water tolerance properties and these properties depend on the amount and strengths of active acid or basic sites. Basic catalyst can be subdivided based on the type of metal oxides and their derivatives. Similarly, acidic catalyst can be subdivided depending upon their active acidic sites. New varieties of mixed catalyst are also available in literatures. Catalyst generated from bio-waste and other biocatalysts which are heterogeneous in nature and extensively reported in literature are also reviewed. This review focused about the recent invention and use of the heterogeneous acid, base and biocatalysts for biodiesel production and their suitability for industrial application.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
Volume (Year): 15 (2011)
Issue (Month): 9 ()
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