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Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies

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  • Asif, M.
  • Muneer, T.
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    Abstract

    Energy is inevitable for human life and a secure and accessible supply of energy is crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels is set to face multiple challenges: depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns, geopolitical and military conflicts and of late, continued and significant fuel price rise. These problems indicate an unsustainable situation. Renewable energy is the solution to the growing energy challenges. Renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass, and wave and tidal energy, are abundant, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly. This article provides an overview of the current and projected energy scene. Five countries, that presently have a significant impact on global energy situation, have been studied in this work. These include China, India, Russia, UK and USA. Together the present energy budget of these countries is roughly half that of the globe. Four of the above five countries that are discussed in this work--China, India, UK and USA are all net importers of energy and are heavily dependent on imports of fuel to sustain their energy demands. Their respective local oil reserves will only last 9, 6, 7 and 4 years, respectively. China, the emerging economy in the world, is however making exemplary development in renewable energy--in 2004 renewable energy in China grew by 25% against 7-9% growth in electricity demand. While in the same year, wind energy in China saw a growth of 35%. China is also leading the global solar thermal market as it has already installed solar collectors over 65 million square meters, accounting for more than 40% of the world's total collector area. This article quantifies the period of exhaustion of the current major energy sources, i.e. coal, oil, gas and nuclear fissile material. Projected demand for energy is also presented and a feasibility of switch over to renewable energy is discussed. The article also presents the size of respective wind- and solar farms that would be required for each of the five countries under discussion to meet their year 2020 energy demands. It has been found that to meet 50% of the total energy demands the proposed area for collection of solar and wind energy by means of ultra-large scale farms in fact will occupy a mere fraction of the available land and near-offshore area for the respective countries, e.g. a solar PV electricity farm of 61Â km2 for China represents 0.005% of the Gobi desert. Likewise, the 26 and 36Â km2 PV farm area, respectively, required for India and the US represents 0.01% and 0.014% land area of Rajasthan and Baja deserts. The above areas required for the farms may be further split to form a cluster of smaller energy farms.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

    Volume (Year): 11 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 7 (September)
    Pages: 1388-1413

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:11:y:2007:i:7:p:1388-1413

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    Keywords: Renewable energy Solar and wind power Energy security Sustainable energy supply;

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    Cited by:
    1. Zafeiriou, Eleni & Arabatzis, Garyfallos & Koutroumanidis, Theodoros, 2011. "The fuelwood market in Greece: An empirical approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 3008-3018, August.
    2. Ramos, Greici & Ghisi, Enedir, 2010. "Analysis of daylight calculated using the EnergyPlus programme," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 14(7), pages 1948-1958, September.
    3. Shafiee, Shahriar & Topal, Erkan, 2009. "When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 181-189, January.
    4. Mellit, A. & Kalogirou, S.A. & Hontoria, L. & Shaari, S., 2009. "Artificial intelligence techniques for sizing photovoltaic systems: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 406-419, February.
    5. Hasan, M.H. & Mahlia, T.M.I. & Nur, Hadi, 2012. "A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Indonesia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 2316-2328.
    6. Grahovac, Jovana A. & Dodić, Jelena M. & Dodić, Siniša N. & Popov, Stevan D. & Vučurović, Damjan G. & Jokić, Aleksandar I., 2012. "Future trends of bioethanol co-production in Serbian sugar plants," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 3270-3274.
    7. Cai, Y.P. & Huang, G.H. & Yang, Z.F. & Tan, Q., 2009. "Identification of optimal strategies for energy management systems planning under multiple uncertainties," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 480-495, April.
    8. Pandey, Shreemat & Singh, Vijai Shanker & Gangwar, Naresh Pal & Vijayvergia, M.M. & Prakash, Chandra & Pandey, Deep Narayan, 2012. "Determinants of success for promoting solar energy in Rajasthan, India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 3593-3598.
    9. Maddaloni, Jesse D. & Rowe, Andrew M. & van Kooten, G. Cornelis, 2008. "Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 591-602, February.
    10. Chicco, Gianfranco & Mancarella, Pierluigi, 2009. "Distributed multi-generation: A comprehensive view," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 535-551, April.
    11. Wu, Jiaping & Garnett, Stephen T. & Barnes, Tony, 2008. "Beyond an energy deal: Impacts of the Sino-Australia uranium agreement," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 413-422, January.
    12. Shen, Yung-Chi & Lin, Grace T.R. & Li, Kuang-Pin & Yuan, Benjamin J.C., 2010. "An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4604-4616, August.
    13. Zhu, Y. & Li, Y.P. & Huang, G.H., 2013. "Planning carbon emission trading for Beijing's electric power systems under dual uncertainties," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 113-128.
    14. Ekren, Orhan & Ekren, Banu Y., 2010. "Size optimization of a PV/wind hybrid energy conversion system with battery storage using simulated annealing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 592-598, February.
    15. Chuang, Ming Chih & Ma, Hwong Wen, 2013. "Energy security and improvements in the function of diversity indices—Taiwan energy supply structure case study," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 9-20.
    16. Zhu, Y. & Huang, G.H. & Li, Y.P. & He, L. & Zhang, X.X., 2011. "An interval full-infinite mixed-integer programming method for planning municipal energy systems - A case study of Beijing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(8), pages 2846-2862, August.

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