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The effect of board structure on firm value: A multiple identification strategies approach using Korean data

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  • Black, Bernard
  • Kim, Woochan

Abstract

Outside directors and audit committees are widely considered to be central elements of good corporate governance. We use a 1999 Korean law as an exogenous shock to assess whether and how board structure affects firm market value. The law mandates 50% outside directors and an audit committee for large public firms, but not smaller firms. We study this shock using event study, difference-in-differences, and instrumental variable methods, within an overall regression discontinuity approach. The legal shock produces economically large share price increases for large firms, relative to mid-sized firms; their share prices jump in 1999 when the reforms are announced.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

Volume (Year): 104 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 203-226

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:104:y:2012:i:1:p:203-226

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

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Keywords: Korea; Outside directors; Audit committee; Corporate governance; Board of directors;

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References

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  1. Bernard S. Black & Hasung Jang & Woochan Kim, 2006. "Does Corporate Governance Predict Firms' Market Values? Evidence from Korea," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 366-413, October.
  2. Dahya, Jay & McConnell, John J., 2007. "Board Composition, Corporate Performance, and the Cadbury Committee Recommendation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 535-564, September.
  3. Anup Agrawal & Charles R. Knoeber, . "Firm Performance and Mechanisms to Control Agency Problems between Managers and Shareholders (Revision of 29-94)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 08-96, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  4. Himmelberg, Charles P. & Hubbard, R. Glenn & Palia, Darius, 1999. "Understanding the determinants of managerial ownership and the link between ownership and performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 353-384, September.
  5. Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael S. Weisbach, 1996. "Endogenously Chosen Boards of Directors and Their Monitoring of the CEO," Working Papers _004, University of California at Berkeley, Haas School of Business.
  6. Klein, April, 1998. "Firm Performance and Board Committee Structure," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 275-303, April.
  7. Milton Harris & Artur Raviv, 2008. "A Theory of Board Control and Size," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1797-1832, July.
  8. Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Working Papers 13039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Adams, Renee & Hermalin, Benjamin E. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2009. "The Role of Boards of Directors in Corporate Governance: A Conceptual Framework and Survey," Working Paper Series 2008-21, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
  10. Coles, Jeffrey L. & Daniel, Naveen D. & Naveen, Lalitha, 2008. "Boards: Does one size fit all," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 329-356, February.
  11. Coles, Jeffrey & Lemmon, Michael & Meschke, Felix, 2007. "Structural Models and Endogeneity in Corporate Finance: the Link Between Managerial Ownership and Corporate Performance," MPRA Paper 4374, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Feb 2007.
  12. Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael S. Weisbach, 2001. "Boards of Directors as an Endogenously Determined Institution: A Survey of the Economic Literature," NBER Working Papers 8161, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Anup Agrawal & Charles R. Knoeber, . "Firm Performance and Mechanisms to Control Agency Problems between Managers and Shareholders (Revision of 29-94)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 8-96, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  14. Agrawal, Anup & Knoeber, Charles R, 2001. "Do Some Outside Directors Play a Political Role?," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(1), pages 179-98, April.
  15. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-77, December.
  16. Black, Bernard S. & Jang, Hasung & Kim, Woochan, 2006. "Predicting firms' corporate governance choices: Evidence from Korea," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 660-691, June.
  17. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1980. "Measuring security price performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 205-258, September.
  18. Boone, Audra L. & Casares Field, Laura & Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Raheja, Charu G., 2007. "The determinants of corporate board size and composition: An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 66-101, July.
  19. Iain MacNeil & Xiao Li, 2006. ""Comply or Explain": market discipline and non-compliance with the Combined Code," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(5), pages 486-496, 09.
  20. A. Craig MacKinlay, 1997. "Event Studies in Economics and Finance," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 13-39, March.
  21. Dahya, Jay & Dimitrov, Orlin & McConnell, John J., 2008. "Dominant shareholders, corporate boards, and corporate value: A cross-country analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 73-100, January.
  22. Yeh, Yin-Hua & Woidtke, Tracie, 2005. "Commitment or entrenchment?: Controlling shareholders and board composition," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1857-1885, July.
  23. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule To Estimate The Effect Of Class Size On Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575, May.
  24. Yermack, David, 1996. "Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 185-211, February.
  25. Erickson, John & Park, Yun W. & Reising, Joe & Shin, Hyun-Han, 2005. "Board composition and firm value under concentrated ownership: the Canadian evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 387-410, September.
  26. Agrawal, Anup & Knoeber, Charles R., 1996. "Firm Performance and Mechanisms to Control Agency Problems between Managers and Shareholders," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(03), pages 377-397, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Robert Cooter & Hans Bernd Sch�fer, 2011. "The Secret of Growth Is Financing Secrets: Corporate Law and Growth Economics," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(S4), pages S105 - S123.
  2. Hwang, Lee-Seok & Kim, Hakkon & Park, Kwangwoo & Park, Rae Soo, 2013. "Corporate governance and payout policy: Evidence from Korean business groups," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 179-198.
  3. Fahlenbrach, Rudiger & Low, Angie & Stulz, Rene M., 2010. "The Dark Side of Outside Directors: Do They Quit When They Are Most Needed?," Working Paper Series 2010-7, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
  4. Claessens, Stijn & Yurtoglu, B. Burcin, 2013. "Corporate governance in emerging markets: A survey," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 1-33.
  5. Braga-Alves, Marcus V. & Morey, Matthew, 2012. "Predicting corporate governance in emerging markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1414-1439.
  6. Vagliasindi, Maria, 2008. "The effectiveness of boards of directors of state owned enterprises in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4579, The World Bank.
  7. Balasubramanian, N. & Black, Bernard S. & Khanna, Vikramaditya, 2010. "The relation between firm-level corporate governance and market value: A case study of India," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 319-340, December.
  8. Muravyev, Alexander, 2009. "Investor protection and share prices: Evidence from statutory rules governing variations of shareholders’ class rights in Russia," MPRA Paper 13678, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Muravyev, Alexander, 2009. "Investor Protection and the Value of Shares: Evidence from Statutory Rules Governing Variations of Shareholders' Class Rights in Russia," IZA Discussion Papers 4669, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Black, Bernard S. & de Carvalho, Antonio Gledson & Gorga, Érica, 2012. "What matters and for which firms for corporate governance in emerging markets? Evidence from Brazil (and other BRIK countries)," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 934-952.
  11. Min, Byung-Seong, 2013. "Evaluation of board reforms: An examination of the appointment of outside directors," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 21-43.

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